# Letter Formation: Alphabet and Number Formation Cards

Letter Formation: Alphabet and Number Formation Cards

MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined since the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved with time; it’s no further possible to describe it in a few sentences. What I have to express now is going to be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art like painting and music. The vast majority of mathematicians perform it being an art. From this viewpoint, the fact that a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another other than mathematics does not concern them much. What matters for them could be the depth of the job done, the novelty of the strategy used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is a language. If the goal of science could be the universe; If it is to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we must manage to see the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we must know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also view it as a game. Mathematics is only a tool because of its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is within our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics has become far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not believe those that cope with mathematics are more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics than the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The word mathematics, for the first time, BC. It had been employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry into the written literature, with Plato BC. It had been in the 380s. The word meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, rather than the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages were used.

It is difficult to state anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that aren’t centered on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We can say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. In accordance with Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. You may already know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suitable for agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are extremely valuable. However, by the end of the floods brought on by the Nile river every year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Since the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each and every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who are in charge of these works, should come to take the required measurements and provide the landowners as much land as they’d in the last year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of those measurements and calculations. An additional opinion about the birth of mathematics is usually the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). Based on Aristotle, mathematics was created in Egypt. However it was created out of the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the need for measurement-calculation due to Nile floods. During those times, the only real intellectual class of countries such as for example Egypt was the priest class. Since the livelihood of this class is given by the general public or their state, they’ve much time for you to share with intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that time, in the same way others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views may be true; priests wanted to simplify the work of the geometric, or they discovered how to calculate the regions of some geometric shapes such as triangular and trapezoidal to check that the distribution was fair, and in this way generated the birth of geometry.

We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The very first period will be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The second period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover an amount of 1000 years, referred to as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The third term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, referred to as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we’re living in, dating back to early 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, could be the fifth period. I will endeavour to provide information about the development of mathematics for the reason that period, contributing mathematicians, the area of mathematics in social life and the basic top features of mathematics for the reason that period.

We shall start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two major causes for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The 2nd reason is the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of these fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, on average 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to write text rather than paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are based on the word papyrus. The common lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky as a result of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Up to now, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main sourced elements of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are both of these papyri. The initial of those papyrus is a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is a copy compiled by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to teach math. In the introduction part, after having a few exercises given to show operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are given with their solutions. These are the kind of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the location of some geometric shapes. This is just about our 8th grade mathematics. The second papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, is also BC. It is really a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the type of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, aside from the two. As for the other two questions, one of them is the calculation of the quantity and area of the surface of the sphere part cut by way of a plane. Another is the question of finding the amount of a pyramid cut by a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted while the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the region of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the number of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s are the years when the Persians started initially to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the sole rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, annually later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 could be the date that was accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a very bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. Two people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous that he went to Egypt, stayed there for a time and learned geometry in Egypt. Whilst in Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the fantastic pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the length of the present shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming an organization around him to instruct what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, that is not based on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. In addition, Tales is the one who is considered the initial philosopher in human history. He was created on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, went along to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians during the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a school and tried to instruct the people he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior folks of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected to each other with oath. The next group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According in their mind, everything can be reduced to numbers; It comes with an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is just a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for instance 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… would be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem referred to as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the right sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the very first major crisis of mathematics. Lots of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led with a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for quite some time under this or that name. As may be understood from these records, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the foundation of Greek mathematics.

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