Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined while the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved over time; it’s no more possible to explain it in a couple of sentences. What I’ve to say now will undoubtedly be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art form like painting and music. The great majority of mathematicians perform it as an art. From this viewpoint, the fact that a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another besides mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters in their mind may be the depth of the job done, the novelty of the techniques used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is just a language. If the purpose of science is the universe; When it is to comprehend, rule and direct everything in the universe, we should have the ability to browse the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we must know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also view it as a game. Mathematics is just a tool for its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is in your knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is now far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t believe that people who deal with mathematics are more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for the very first time, BC. It absolutely was utilized by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry into the written literature, with Plato BC. It was in the 380s. The term meaning is “what must be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, rather than the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equivalent to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It’s extremely hard to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents which are not centered on archaeological findings that require interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We can say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. You may already know, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not suited to agriculture; It is the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are really valuable. However, at the end of the floods due to the Nile river each year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Considering that the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each flood, the “geometricists” of their state, who are in charge of these works, should arrived at take the mandatory measurements and give the landowners just as much land as they had in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of those measurements and calculations. An additional opinion in regards to the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). In accordance with Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. However it was born out of the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the need for measurement-calculation due to Nile floods. During those times, the only real intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Considering that the livelihood of the class is provided by the general public or the state, they’ve much time and energy to share with intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that time, in the same way others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.These two views might be true; priests wished to simplify the job of the geometric, or they learned just how to calculate the aspects of some geometric shapes such as triangular and trapezoidal to check that the distribution was fair, and in this way generated the birth of geometry.
We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The very first period is going to be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The second period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover a period of 1000 years, called the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The third term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, called the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we’re surviving in, dating back again to the early 1900s, called age modern mathematics, could be the fifth period. I will attempt to offer information regarding the development of mathematics in that period, contributing mathematicians, the spot of mathematics in social life and the essential features of mathematics in that period.
We will start the very first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You will find two main reasons for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason may be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of the fires happened during the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus is the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, on average 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to write text in place of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the phrase papyrus. The average lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to own been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main resources of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are these two papyri. The initial of the papyrus is really a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus referred to as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is just a copy compiled by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to teach math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are shown using their solutions. They are the type of questions people can encounter in everyday life, such as for instance sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the location of some geometric shapes. This really is just about our 8th grade mathematics. The second papyrus, called the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can also be BC. It is a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, with the exception of the two. As for the other two questions, one may be the calculation of the amount and part of the surface of the sphere part cut by a plane. One other is the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut by a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted since the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the region of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the amount of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained as of this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s are the years once the Persians began to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the sole rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 could be the date that was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started earlier than this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known he went along to Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the truly amazing pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the fantastic pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the size of the current shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming friends around him to show what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof based on reasoning, which is not predicated on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Furthermore, Tales is the person who is recognized as the very first philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, went along to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken to Babylon by capturing the Persians during the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a college and tried to teach the people he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior people of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected to one another with oath. The second group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According for them, everything could be reduced to numbers; It comes with an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… would be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the proper sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the first major crisis of mathematics. Lots of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by a raid led by way of a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As may be understood from these records, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.