# Math humor — < I loved being a Math substitute teacher when my degree was in so...

Math humor — < I loved being a Math substitute teacher when my degree was in something √ Else / √ Other. Invariably, there would be kids like my own now, :-) ... intent on giving me help. > — << Pinned earlier on my 123-Me board ... www.pinterest.com… >>

MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is one of the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined since the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved over time; it’s no further possible to explain it in several sentences. What I have to express now will soon be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is a skill like painting and music. The great majority of mathematicians perform it as an art. Using this viewpoint, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another other than mathematics does not concern them much. What matters for them could be the depth of the work done, the novelty of the strategy used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is a language. If the goal of science is the universe; If it’s to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we ought to manage to see the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we must know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also notice it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool because of its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is inside our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics has become far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t genuinely believe that people who deal with mathematics tend to be more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics than the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The word mathematics, for initially, BC. It had been used by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry in to the written literature, with Plato BC. It had been in the 380s. The phrase meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, as opposed to the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages were used.

It’s extremely hard to express anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents which are not predicated on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We are able to say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. In accordance with Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. As you know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t ideal for agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that provides life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are incredibly valuable. However, at the end of the floods brought on by the Nile river each year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Considering that the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each and every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who are in charge of these works, should come to take the mandatory measurements and supply the landowners the maximum amount of land as they had in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of these measurements and calculations. An additional opinion concerning the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). Based on Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. Nonetheless it was created out of the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the necessity for measurement-calculation brought on by Nile floods. In those days, the only intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Because the livelihood of the class is provided by the general public or the state, they have much time to give intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that time, in the same way others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.These two views might be true; priests wished to simplify the work of the geometric, or they discovered just how to calculate the areas of some geometric shapes such as for instance triangular and trapezoidal to check that the distribution was fair, and this way generated the birth of geometry.

We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period will be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The next period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover an amount of 1000 years, referred to as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The next term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, called the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we are living in, dating back again to the first 1900s, called age modern mathematics, could be the fifth period. I will try to give information about the development of mathematics for the reason that period, contributing mathematicians, the place of mathematics in social life and the fundamental options that come with mathematics for the reason that period.

We will start the very first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You can find two significant reasons for this. The foremost is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The next reason could be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the last of the fires happened during the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, on average 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to create text instead of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the phrase papyrus. The average lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to own been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key resources of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The initial of those papyrus is just a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy published by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to instruct math. In the introduction part, after having a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are shown with their solutions. They’re the type of questions people can encounter in lifestyle, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the area of some geometric shapes. This really is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, known as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can also be BC. It is really a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the sort of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, aside from the two. As for the other two questions, one is the calculation of the volume and section of the surface of the sphere part cut by way of a plane. One other could be the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut by way of a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted whilst the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the location of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found how many pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s would be the years once the Persians started to dominate the center east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only real rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, annually later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 may be the date that was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of a very bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as being the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous that he visited Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. Whilst in Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the great pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to along the present shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to instruct what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, which is not centered on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Furthermore, Tales is the one who is recognized as the first philosopher in human history. He was created on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a time, went to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians throughout the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a school and tried to instruct the people he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior individuals of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected together with oath. The second group includes students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According for them, everything could be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for instance 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… are the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem called the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the best sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the very first major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led by way of a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after many years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As can be understood from this information, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.

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