Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined since the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved over time; it is no more possible to describe it in a couple of sentences. What I’ve to say now is going to be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is a skill like painting and music. The vast majority of mathematicians perform it being an art. From this point of view, the fact that a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another other than mathematics does not concern them much. What matters for them may be the depth of the task done, the novelty of the techniques used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is just a language. If the purpose of science could be the universe; If it’s to know, rule and direct everything in the universe, we should be able to read the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we must know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics can be an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also view it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is within our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics has become far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t think that those who handle mathematics are far more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics than the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for the very first time, BC. It was utilized by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry into the written literature, with Plato BC. It was in the 380s. The word meaning is “what must be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, rather than the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, equivalent to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It’s extremely hard to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents that are not centered on archaeological findings that want interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. You may already know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suited to agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are incredibly valuable. However, at the end of the floods brought on by the Nile river each year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Considering that the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each flood, the “geometricists” of the state, that are accountable for these works, should arrived at take the required measurements and supply the landowners as much land as they had in the previous year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of those measurements and calculations. Another opinion in regards to the birth of mathematics is the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to Aristotle, mathematics came to be in Egypt. However it came to be out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the requirement for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. During those times, the only intellectual class of countries such as for example Egypt was the priest class. Because the livelihood of the class is provided by people or their state, they have much time to give to intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of the period, just as others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.These two views may be true; priests desired to simplify the job of the geometric, or they learned just how to calculate the areas of some geometric shapes such as triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and this way generated the birth of geometry.
We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period will be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover an amount of 1000 years, known as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The 3rd term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, called the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we’re residing in, dating back to the first 1900s, called age modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will attempt to give information regarding the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the area of mathematics in social life and the fundamental features of mathematics because period.
We shall start the very first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two main reasons for this. The foremost is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The next reason could be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the final of those fires happened during the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, an average of 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text in place of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are derived from the word papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky as a result of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to possess been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key resources of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The first of those papyrus is really a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus referred to as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to show math. In the introduction part, after a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are made using their solutions. They are the sort of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the location of some geometric shapes. This is just about our 8th grade mathematics. The next papyrus, called the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, is also BC. It is just a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the sort of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, with the exception of the two. Are you aware that other two questions, one is the calculation of the amount and area of the surface of the sphere part cut with a plane. Another is the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. These two questions are accepted while the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the area of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the number of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s would be the years once the Persians began to dominate the center east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the sole rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, annually later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 is the date which was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a really bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started sooner than this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as being the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous he visited Egypt, stayed there for a time and learned geometry in Egypt. During Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the truly amazing pyramid by measuring along the shadow of the great pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to along the present shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to show what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof based on reasoning, which will be not based on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Additionally, Tales is the one who is recognized as the initial philosopher in human history. He was born on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, went to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians through the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a school and tried to instruct the folks he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior individuals of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected to each other with oath. The next group includes students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According in their mind, everything can be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… will be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem called the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the right sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a strong crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the very first major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As can be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the cornerstone of Greek mathematics.