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Mathematics is one of the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined because the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved over time; it’s no more possible to describe it in a couple of sentences. What I’ve to say now will soon be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art like painting and music. A large proportion of mathematicians perform it being an art. Out of this standpoint, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another apart from mathematics does not concern them much. What matters in their mind is the depth of the work done, the novelty of the methods used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is a language. If the objective of science is the universe; If it is to comprehend, rule and direct everything in the universe, we must be able to read the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we have to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also notice it as a game. Mathematics is just a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is inside our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not believe those that cope with mathematics are far more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for the first time, BC. It had been employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry in to the written literature, with Plato BC. It was in the 380s. The word meaning is “what must be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, as opposed to the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, comparable to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It is not possible to express anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that are not based on archaeological findings that require interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We can say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Based on Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. You may already know, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not suitable for agriculture; It is the 3% portion that provides life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are incredibly valuable. However, at the end of the floods caused by the Nile river each year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Because the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each flood, the “geometricists” of their state, who’re accountable for these works, should come to take the mandatory measurements and provide the landowners just as much land as they had in the last year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of the measurements and calculations. Another opinion in regards to the birth of mathematics is usually the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). In accordance with Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. Nonetheless it was created out of the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the need for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. During those times, the sole intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Because the livelihood with this class is provided by the general public or the state, they have much time for you to give to intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of the period, just as others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views may be true; priests desired to simplify the task of the geometric, or they found out how to calculate the aspects of some geometric shapes such as triangular and trapezoidal to check that the distribution was fair, and this way generated the birth of geometry.
We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period will undoubtedly be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The next period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover a period of 1000 years, known as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The 3rd term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, known as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The period we are residing in, dating back once again to early 1900s, called age modern mathematics, could be the fifth period. I will try to offer information about the development of mathematics for the reason that period, contributing mathematicians, the spot of mathematics in social life and the fundamental top features of mathematics because period.
We shall start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You will find two main reasons for this. The foremost is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The next reason is the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the last of these fires happened during the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus is the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, typically 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to write text instead of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are derived from the term papyrus. The average lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky as a result of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key sources of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The initial of these papyrus is really a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus referred to as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is just a copy published by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to show math. In the introduction part, after a few exercises given to teach operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are made using their solutions. They’re the kind of questions people can encounter in lifestyle, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the region of some geometric shapes. That is pretty much our 8th grade mathematics. The second papyrus, known as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, is also BC. It is a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the type of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, with the exception of the two. Are you aware that other two questions, one of them may be the calculation of the amount and section of the surface of the sphere part cut with a plane. The other may be the question of finding the quantity of a pyramid cut by way of a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted since the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the location of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the amount of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s would be the years once the Persians started to dominate the center east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the sole rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, per year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 may be the date that has been accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a really bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started earlier than this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as being the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known that he visited Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. Whilst in Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the fantastic pyramid by measuring the size of the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the length of the existing shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to instruct what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, that will be not centered on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. In addition, Tales is the one who is recognized as the very first philosopher in human history. He was created on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a time, visited Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken fully to Babylon by capturing the Persians during the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a school and tried to teach individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior people of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected to one another with oath. The second group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is dependant on number cult. According for them, everything could be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for instance 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… would be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem referred to as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the best sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a heavy crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the very first major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by a raid led by way of a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a couple of years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for several years under this or that name. As can be understood from this information, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the cornerstone of Greek mathematics.