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Mathematics is one of the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined because the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved with time; it is no longer possible to describe it in a couple of sentences. What I’ve to express now is going to be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art form like painting and music. The great majority of mathematicians perform it as an art. From this perspective, the fact that a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another besides mathematics does not concern them much. What matters in their mind may be the depth of the work done, the novelty of the techniques used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is really a language. If the goal of science is the universe; If it is to know, rule and direct everything in the universe, we must have the ability to read the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we must know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics can be an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also see it as a game. Mathematics is just a tool for its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is within our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t believe that people who handle mathematics tend to be more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The word mathematics, for the first time, BC. It had been used by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry in to the written literature, with Plato BC. It had been in the 380s. The word meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, instead of the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equivalent to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It’s difficult to express anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents which are not predicated on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We can say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. Everbody knows, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not ideal for agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that provides life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are extremely valuable. However, at the conclusion of the floods brought on by the Nile river annually, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Since the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after every flood, the “geometricists” of their state, who’re responsible for these works, should come to take the required measurements and provide the landowners just as much land as they had in the previous year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of these measurements and calculations. An additional opinion about the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. Nonetheless it came to be out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the need for measurement-calculation due to Nile floods. In those days, the only intellectual class of countries such as for example Egypt was the priest class. Because the livelihood of the class is supplied by people or the state, they have much time and energy to give intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that time, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views might be true; priests desired to simplify the task of the geometric, or they found out how exactly to calculate the aspects of some geometric shapes such as triangular and trapezoidal to check that the distribution was fair, and in this way resulted in the birth of geometry.
We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The very first period will soon be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The second period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover an amount of 1000 years, referred to as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The third term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, known as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we are surviving in, dating back to the early 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will try to give information regarding the development of mathematics in that period, contributing mathematicians, the spot of mathematics in social life and the fundamental options that come with mathematics for the reason that period.
We shall start the initial semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two main reasons for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The next reason may be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the last of the fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus could be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, on average 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text rather than paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are derived from the word papyrus. The common lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to possess been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key sourced elements of our familiarity with Egyptian mathematics are these two papyri. The first of the papyrus is really a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus called the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is just a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to show math. In the introduction part, after a few exercises given to teach operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are given making use of their solutions. They’re the kind of questions people can encounter in lifestyle, such as for example sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the region of some geometric shapes. That is just about our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, known as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, is also BC. It is just a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the sort of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, with the exception of the two. As for the other two questions, one of them may be the calculation of the quantity and area of the surface of the sphere part cut by a plane. Another may be the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut by way of a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. These two questions are accepted since the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the location of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the amount of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained as of this level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s would be the years when the Persians started to dominate the center east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the sole rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, annually later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 may be the date that was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a really bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started sooner than this period. Two people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous he visited Egypt, stayed there for a while and learned geometry in Egypt. Whilst in Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the fantastic pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the fantastic pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the size of the current shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to instruct what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof based on reasoning, which is not based on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Additionally, Tales is the person who is considered the initial philosopher in human history. He was born on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a while, went along to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken fully to Babylon by capturing the Persians during the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a college and tried to teach the folks he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior folks of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected together with oath. The second group includes students attending school. Pythagoras school is dependant on number cult. According in their mind, everything can be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for example 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… would be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem called the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the right sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a strong crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the very first major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led by way of a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a couple of years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for several years under this or that name. As can be understood from this information, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the cornerstone of Greek mathematics.