Math = Love: My 2018-2019 Math Classroom Decorations | Math

Math = Love: My 2018-2019 Math Classroom Decorations

Math = Love: My 2018-2019 Math Classroom Decorations

MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is one of many oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined whilst the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved over time; it’s no longer possible to spell it out it in a couple of sentences. What I have to say now will undoubtedly be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art form like painting and music. A large proportion of mathematicians perform it as an art. From this perspective, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another apart from mathematics does not concern them much. What matters to them may be the depth of the task done, the novelty of the strategy used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is a language. If the purpose of science may be the universe; If it’s to know, rule and direct everything in the universe, we should be able to browse the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we need to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also see it as a game. Mathematics is just a tool because of its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is in your knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t believe those who handle mathematics are far more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics than the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The term mathematics, for the very first time, BC. It was utilized by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry into the written literature, with Plato BC. It had been in the 380s. The phrase meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, as opposed to the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, comparable to it in geometry or old languages ​​were used.

It’s not possible to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents which are not predicated on archaeological findings that require interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We can say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. Everbody knows, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not ideal for agriculture; It is the 3% portion that provides life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are extremely valuable. However, at the conclusion of the floods due to the Nile river annually, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Because the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after every flood, the “geometricists” of their state, that are accountable for these works, should arrive at take the required measurements and give the landowners just as much land as they had in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of the measurements and calculations. A second opinion in regards to the birth of mathematics is the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). In accordance with Aristotle, mathematics came to be in Egypt. But it came to be out of the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the necessity for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. In those days, the only real intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Because the livelihood of this class is provided by the public or the state, they’ve much time to give to intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of the period, just as others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views may be true; priests wished to simplify the work of the geometric, or they discovered how exactly to calculate the aspects of some geometric shapes such as for example triangular and trapezoidal to check on that the distribution was fair, and in this manner led to the birth of geometry.

We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period is likely to be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover a period of 1000 years, referred to as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The next term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, known as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we are residing in, dating back to the early 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, will be the fifth period. I will attempt to offer information about the development of mathematics for the reason that period, contributing mathematicians, the spot of mathematics in social life and the essential features of mathematics for the reason that period.

We shall start the initial semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two major causes for this. The first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason is the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the final of those fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus could be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, an average of 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to write text in place of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages ​​such as “Paper”, “papier” are based on the word papyrus. The common lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky because of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main sources of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are these two papyri. The first of those papyrus is really a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus referred to as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is just a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to teach math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to teach operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions receive using their solutions. They are the sort of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as for example sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the region of ​​some geometric shapes. That is just about our 8th grade mathematics. The second papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, is also BC. It is a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the sort of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, aside from the two. When it comes to other two questions, one may be the calculation of the quantity and section of ​​the surface of the sphere part cut by a plane. The other could be the question of finding the amount of a pyramid cut by way of a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted while the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the region of ​​the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the number of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s would be the years once the Persians started to dominate the center east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only real rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 may be the date that was accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a really bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started sooner than this period. Two people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as being the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous he went along to Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. During Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the truly amazing pyramid by measuring the size of the shadow of the great pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the size of the present shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming an organization around him to show what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, that is not centered on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Additionally, Tales is the one who is recognized as the initial philosopher in human history. He was born on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, visited Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken to Babylon by capturing the Persians during the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a school and tried to teach the folks he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior people of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected together with oath. The 2nd group includes students attending school. Pythagoras school is dependant on number cult. According to them, everything can be reduced to numbers; It comes with an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… would be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem called the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the best sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a strong crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the very first major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led with a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a couple of years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for several years under this or that name. As can be understood from these records, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.

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