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Mathematics is one of the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined whilst the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved over time; it’s no more possible to describe it in a couple of sentences. What I have to express now is going to be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art like painting and music. The vast majority of mathematicians perform it as an art. Out of this point of view, the fact a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another apart from mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters to them could be the depth of the task done, the novelty of the methods used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is just a language. If the goal of science may be the universe; When it is to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we should manage to browse the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we need to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics can be an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also see it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is in your knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not genuinely believe that those that deal with mathematics are far more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The term mathematics, for the very first time, BC. It had been employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry to the written literature, with Plato BC. It was in the 380s. The word meaning is “what must be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, as opposed to the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equivalent to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It is extremely hard to express anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents which are not based on archaeological findings that want interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. Everbody knows, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suited to agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are really valuable. However, at the conclusion of the floods brought on by the Nile river annually, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Considering that the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each and every flood, the “geometricists” of their state, who’re in charge of these works, should arrive at take the necessary measurements and give the landowners as much land as they had in the previous year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of these measurements and calculations. A second opinion about the birth of mathematics is the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. However it came to be from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the need for measurement-calculation due to Nile floods. At that time, the only intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Because the livelihood of the class is supplied by people or the state, they’ve much time and energy to give to intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that time, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views may be true; priests wished to simplify the task of the geometric, or they discovered how to calculate the areas of some geometric shapes such as triangular and trapezoidal to check on that the distribution was fair, and in this manner resulted in the birth of geometry.
We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The initial period will be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover an amount of 1000 years, called the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The next term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, referred to as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we are surviving in, dating back again to early 1900s, called age modern mathematics, will be the fifth period. I will try to give information about the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the spot of mathematics in social life and the essential options that come with mathematics because period.
We shall start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You can find two major causes for this. The first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason may be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the last of the fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, on average 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to write text instead of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are based on the term papyrus. The average lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky as a result of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Up to now, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to possess been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key sources of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The very first of those papyrus is a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is just a copy compiled by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to teach math. In the introduction part, after having a few exercises given to teach operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are given with their solutions. They are the kind of questions people can encounter in everyday life, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the region of some geometric shapes. That is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, is also BC. It is just a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, with the exception of the two. When it comes to other two questions, one may be the calculation of the amount and section of the surface of the sphere part cut by a plane. One other could be the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut by way of a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Both of these questions are accepted whilst the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the region of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the amount of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained only at that level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s would be the years when the Persians started initially to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the sole rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, annually later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 may be the date which was accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a really bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous he went along to Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the fantastic pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the length of the present shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming friends around him to teach what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof based on reasoning, which will be not based on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Furthermore, Tales is the one who is known as the initial philosopher in human history. He was born on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, went along to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken fully to Babylon by capturing the Persians through the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a college and tried to instruct the people he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior folks of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected together with oath. The next group includes students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According for them, everything may be reduced to numbers; It comes with an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for example 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… will be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the right sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the initial major crisis of mathematics. Many of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by a raid led by way of a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As may be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the foundation of Greek mathematics.