Math of Mythical Art: Drawing Dragons using Math | Small Online Class for Ages 9-14 | Outschool
Mathematics is one of many oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined since the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved with time; it’s no longer possible to explain it in a couple of sentences. What I have to state now is going to be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art form like painting and music. The vast majority of mathematicians perform it as an art. From this point of view, the fact a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another other than mathematics does not concern them much. What matters to them may be the depth of the work done, the novelty of the methods used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is a language. If the goal of science is the universe; If it’s to know, rule and direct everything in the universe, we should be able to read the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we need to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics can be an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also view it as a game. Mathematics is only a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is within our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is now far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not genuinely believe that those who cope with mathematics are far more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The term mathematics, for the very first time, BC. It had been employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry to the written literature, with Plato BC. It had been in the 380s. The term meaning is “what must be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, rather than the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, comparable to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It is difficult to express anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents that are not based on archaeological findings that want interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. As you know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suited to agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that gives life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are incredibly valuable. However, at the end of the floods brought on by the Nile river every year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Considering that the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each and every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who are responsible for these works, should come to take the required measurements and give the landowners just as much land as they had in the last year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of these measurements and calculations. A second opinion concerning the birth of mathematics is the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). In accordance with Aristotle, mathematics came to be in Egypt. But it came to be from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the need for measurement-calculation due to Nile floods. In those days, the only intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Considering that the livelihood of this class is given by the public or their state, they’ve much time for you to give intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that time, in the same way others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views might be true; priests desired to simplify the job of the geometric, or they found out how to calculate the aspects of some geometric shapes such as triangular and trapezoidal to check on that the distribution was fair, and in this manner resulted in the birth of geometry.
We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period will soon be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The next period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover an amount of 1000 years, referred to as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The third term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, called the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we’re living in, dating back to the early 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will endeavour to give information regarding the development of mathematics in that period, contributing mathematicians, the spot of mathematics in social life and the fundamental top features of mathematics in that period.
We will start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You can find two main reasons for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The 2nd reason could be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of the fires happened throughout the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus is the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, normally 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to create text instead of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are based on the term papyrus. The average lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky as a result of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main sourced elements of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The first of the papyrus is really a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to teach math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are shown with their solutions. These are the sort of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as for instance sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the region of some geometric shapes. This is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The second papyrus, called the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, is also BC. It is just a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the sort of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, with the exception of the two. As for the other two questions, one is the calculation of the amount and section of the surface of the sphere part cut by way of a plane. One other may be the question of finding the amount of a pyramid cut by a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Both of these questions are accepted while the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the area of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found how many pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained only at that level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s would be the years when the Persians started to dominate the center east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only real rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 could be the date which was accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the start of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started sooner than this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known he went along to Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the fantastic pyramid by measuring along the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to along the current shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to show what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof based on reasoning, which will be not centered on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. In addition, Tales is the one who is recognized as the initial philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, went to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians through the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a college and tried to instruct the people he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior individuals of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected to one another with oath. The second group includes students attending school. Pythagoras school is dependant on number cult. According for them, everything can be reduced to numbers; It has an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is just a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… will be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the right sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the first major crisis of mathematics. Lots of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for quite some time under this or that name. As can be understood from this information, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the foundation of Greek mathematics.