Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined as the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved as time passes; it’s no longer possible to spell it out it in a few sentences. What I’ve to state now is going to be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is a skill like painting and music. A large proportion of mathematicians perform it as an art. From this point of view, the fact a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another besides mathematics does not concern them much. What matters for them is the depth of the task done, the novelty of the techniques used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is just a language. If the purpose of science may be the universe; When it is to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we must have the ability to browse the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we need to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also notice it as a game. Mathematics is just a tool for its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is inside our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not genuinely believe that those who deal with mathematics are far more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for the very first time, BC. It absolutely was utilized by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry in to the written literature, with Plato BC. It had been in the 380s. The phrase meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, rather than the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equivalent to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It’s difficult to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that are not centered on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. You may already know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suited to agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that gives life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are extremely valuable. However, by the end of the floods due to the Nile river every year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Since the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each flood, the “geometricists” of their state, that are in charge of these works, should arrived at take the mandatory measurements and supply the landowners as much land as they’d in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of the measurements and calculations. Another opinion about the birth of mathematics is the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to Aristotle, mathematics came to be in Egypt. However it was created out of the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the requirement for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. During those times, the only real intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Because the livelihood with this class is provided by the public or the state, they have much time for you to give to intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both these views may be true; priests wished to simplify the task of the geometric, or they discovered how to calculate the regions of some geometric shapes such as for example triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and this way resulted in the birth of geometry.
We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period will be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The second period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover an amount of 1000 years, referred to as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The next term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, known as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we’re surviving in, dating back again to the first 1900s, called age modern mathematics, could be the fifth period. I will try to offer information about the development of mathematics for the reason that period, contributing mathematicians, the area of mathematics in social life and the fundamental features of mathematics in that period.
We will start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You will find two main reasons for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The 2nd reason may be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the final of those fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus could be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, normally 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text instead of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are based on the term papyrus. The average lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky because of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Up to now, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main resources of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The initial of the papyrus is just a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is a copy compiled by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to instruct math. In the introduction part, after having a few exercises given to show operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions receive with their solutions. They are the kind of questions people can encounter in everyday life, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the area of some geometric shapes. That is just about our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, known as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, is also BC. It is just a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the type of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, aside from the two. When it comes to other two questions, one is the calculation of the amount and area of the surface of the sphere part cut by a plane. Another is the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut by a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Both of these questions are accepted whilst the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the region of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the amount of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s are the years when the Persians started initially to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the sole rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, per year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 is the date which was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a really bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started sooner than this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known he went along to Egypt, stayed there for a while and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the size of the current shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming friends around him to show what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, which is not predicated on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Furthermore, Tales is the person who is known as the initial philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a time, visited Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians during the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a college and tried to show individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior individuals of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected to each other with oath. The 2nd group consists of students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According for them, everything can be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… are the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the proper sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a heavy crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the initial major crisis of mathematics. Lots of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by way of a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a couple of years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As can be understood from this information, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the foundation of Greek mathematics.