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Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined because the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved over time; it’s no longer possible to spell it out it in a couple of sentences. What I have to express now will be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is a skill like painting and music. A large proportion of mathematicians perform it as an art. Out of this standpoint, the fact a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another apart from mathematics does not concern them much. What matters in their mind may be the depth of the work done, the novelty of the techniques used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is really a language. If the goal of science is the universe; When it is to know, rule and direct everything in the universe, we should be able to see the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we must know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also see it as a game. Mathematics is only a tool because of its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is within our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not believe that people who handle mathematics are far more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The term mathematics, for initially, BC. It had been utilized by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry into the written literature, with Plato BC. It absolutely was in the 380s. The word meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, instead of the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, comparable to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It is difficult to state anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents that aren’t predicated on archaeological findings that want interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We can say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. You may already know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suitable for agriculture; It is the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are really valuable. However, by the end of the floods due to the Nile river every year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Because the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each and every flood, the “geometricists” of their state, that are in charge of these works, should arrived at take the mandatory measurements and supply the landowners just as much land as they had in the last year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of the measurements and calculations. Another opinion concerning the birth of mathematics is the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). In accordance with Aristotle, mathematics came to be in Egypt. But it came to be from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the need for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. In those days, the only real intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Since the livelihood of this class is provided by the general public or the state, they’ve much time and energy to give intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, in the same way others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both these views may be true; priests wished to simplify the work of the geometric, or they found out how exactly to calculate the aspects of some geometric shapes such as triangular and trapezoidal to check that the distribution was fair, and this way resulted in the birth of geometry.
We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period is likely to be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover a period of 1000 years, known as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The third term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, called the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we are living in, dating back to the early 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, will be the fifth period. I will endeavour to give information about the development of mathematics for the reason that period, contributing mathematicians, the area of mathematics in social life and the essential options that come with mathematics because period.
We will start the very first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two main reasons for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason may be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the final of these fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, normally 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to create text as opposed to paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the phrase papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky because of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key sourced elements of our familiarity with Egyptian mathematics are these two papyri. The very first of those papyrus is a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy published by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to instruct math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are given making use of their solutions. They’re the sort of questions people can encounter in lifestyle, such as for example sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the region of some geometric shapes. This really is pretty much our 8th grade mathematics. The second papyrus, called the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can be BC. It is a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, except for the two. When it comes to other two questions, one could be the calculation of the amount and section of the surface of the sphere part cut by a plane. Another could be the question of finding the amount of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted while the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the area of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the amount of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s would be the years when the Persians began to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, annually later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 may be the date which was accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of a really bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started sooner than this period. A couple, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous he went to Egypt, stayed there for a while and learned geometry in Egypt. During Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring along the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to along the existing shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to instruct what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof centered on reasoning, which can be not based on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. In addition, Tales is the one who is recognized as the initial philosopher in human history. He was created on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a time, went along to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians during the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a school and tried to instruct individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior people of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected together with oath. The second group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is dependant on number cult. According for them, everything can be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… will be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the proper sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a strong crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the initial major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after many years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for several years under this or that name. As can be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the foundation of Greek mathematics.