Mathe-Spiel – Addition, Subtraktion, Multiplikation, Division – Apps bei Google … | Math

# Mathe-Spiel – Addition, Subtraktion, Multiplikation, Division – Apps bei Google …

MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is one of many oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined because the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved with time; it’s no more possible to explain it in a couple of sentences. What I’ve to express now is going to be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is a skill like painting and music. A large proportion of mathematicians perform it being an art. Out of this viewpoint, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another other than mathematics does not concern them much. What matters to them could be the depth of the task done, the novelty of the techniques used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is just a language. If the objective of science may be the universe; If it is to comprehend, rule and direct everything in the universe, we ought to be able to read the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we need to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also see it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is inside our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not genuinely believe that those who cope with mathematics are more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The term mathematics, for the very first time, BC. It absolutely was utilized by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry to the written literature, with Plato BC. It had been in the 380s. The phrase meaning is “what must be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, rather than the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages ​​were used.

It is difficult to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that aren’t based on archaeological findings that require interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We are able to say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Based on Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. You may already know, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not ideal for agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that provides life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are incredibly valuable. However, at the end of the floods caused by the Nile river each year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Since the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who are in charge of these works, should arrived at take the necessary measurements and give the landowners the maximum amount of land as they’d in the previous year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of the measurements and calculations. Another opinion about the birth of mathematics is the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). Based on Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. However it was created out of the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the requirement for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. During those times, the only real intellectual class of countries such as for example Egypt was the priest class. Considering that the livelihood of the class is provided by the public or the state, they have much time for you to give to intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, in the same way others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both these views may be true; priests wished to simplify the work of the geometric, or they learned how exactly to calculate the aspects of some geometric shapes such as for instance triangular and trapezoidal to check on that the distribution was fair, and in this manner led to the birth of geometry.

We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The very first period will soon be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover a period of 1000 years, known as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The next term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, called the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we are residing in, dating back once again to early 1900s, called age modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will try to provide information about the development of mathematics in that period, contributing mathematicians, the area of mathematics in social life and the essential top features of mathematics in that period.

We will start the very first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You will find two major causes for this. The first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The 2nd reason could be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the final of those fires happened during the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus is the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, normally 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to write text in place of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages ​​such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the word papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky because of moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key resources of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are both of these papyri. The very first of the papyrus is really a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus called the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy compiled by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to teach math. In the introduction part, after having a few exercises given to teach operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are given with their solutions. They are the type of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as for example sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the location of ​​some geometric shapes. This really is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The next papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can be BC. It is a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the type of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, except for the two. As for the other two questions, one of them is the calculation of the quantity and part of ​​the surface of the sphere part cut with a plane. One other is the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut by a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted because the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the location of ​​the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the number of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained as of this level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s are the years once the Persians started to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the sole rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 could be the date that has been accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the start of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started earlier than this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as being the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known he went to Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. During Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the great pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to along the present shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming friends around him to instruct what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof based on reasoning, that is not based on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Additionally, Tales is the person who is considered the initial philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a while, visited Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken to Babylon by capturing the Persians throughout the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a college and tried to teach individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior people of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected to one another with oath. The next group consists of students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According in their mind, everything can be reduced to numbers; It comes with an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… are the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem called the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the right sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a strong crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the initial major crisis of mathematics. Many of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after many years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As may be understood from this information, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the cornerstone of Greek mathematics.