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Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined whilst the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved with time; it is no more possible to spell it out it in a few sentences. What I’ve to express now will soon be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art form like painting and music. The vast majority of mathematicians perform it being an art. From this point of view, the fact a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another besides mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters for them could be the depth of the work done, the novelty of the strategy used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is really a language. If the objective of science is the universe; When it is to know, rule and direct everything in the universe, we should manage to browse the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we need to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also see it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool because of its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is within our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is now far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not believe people who handle mathematics are more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The word mathematics, for initially, BC. It was used by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry into the written literature, with Plato BC. It absolutely was in the 380s. The word meaning is “what must be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, rather than the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It is difficult to express anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that aren’t predicated on archaeological findings that want interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Based on Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. As you know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suitable for agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that provides life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are extremely valuable. However, by the end of the floods brought on by the Nile river each year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Because the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who’re in charge of these works, should arrive at take the necessary measurements and supply the landowners the maximum amount of land as they’d in the previous year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of those measurements and calculations. Another opinion about the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to Aristotle, mathematics came to be in Egypt. Nonetheless it came to be out of the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the necessity for measurement-calculation due to Nile floods. In those days, the only real intellectual class of countries such as Egypt was the priest class. Considering that the livelihood with this class is given by the public or their state, they’ve much time and energy to share with intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, in the same way others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both these views may be true; priests wished to simplify the job of the geometric, or they found out how to calculate the areas of some geometric shapes such as triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and in this manner generated the birth of geometry.
We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The initial period is going to be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover an amount of 1000 years, referred to as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The next term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, called the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we’re surviving in, dating back to the early 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, could be the fifth period. I will attempt to give details about the development of mathematics in that period, contributing mathematicians, the place of mathematics in social life and the fundamental top features of mathematics because period.
We will start the initial semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two major causes for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The next reason could be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of these fires happened during the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus is the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, normally 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to create text rather than paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the phrase papyrus. The average lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to possess been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key resources of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The initial of these papyrus is just a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus referred to as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to show math. In the introduction part, after having a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are shown making use of their solutions. They’re the sort of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the location of some geometric shapes. This is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The next papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, is also BC. It is just a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the type of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, aside from the two. As for the other two questions, one of them may be the calculation of the quantity and part of the surface of the sphere part cut by a plane. One other is the question of finding the amount of a pyramid cut by a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted while the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the area of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found how many pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained as of this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s will be the years once the Persians began to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, annually later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 is the date that has been accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started sooner than this period. Two people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as being the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous he visited Egypt, stayed there for a time and learned geometry in Egypt. Whilst in Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring along the shadow of the great pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to along the current shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming an organization around him to teach what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof based on reasoning, which can be not centered on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Furthermore, Tales is the one who is considered the initial philosopher in human history. He was born on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a time, went along to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken fully to Babylon by capturing the Persians through the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a school and tried to show the folks he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior folks of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected to one another with oath. The 2nd group includes students attending school. Pythagoras school is based on number cult. According for them, everything can be reduced to numbers; It comes with an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for instance 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… are the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem referred to as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the best sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a strong crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the very first major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a couple of years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for several years under this or that name. As could be understood from this information, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the cornerstone of Greek mathematics.