Mathematics is one of many oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined while the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved over time; it’s no longer possible to explain it in a few sentences. What I have to express now will be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art like painting and music. The great majority of mathematicians perform it as an art. Using this perspective, the fact that a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another other than mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters in their mind may be the depth of the work done, the novelty of the strategy used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is really a language. If the objective of science is the universe; When it is to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we ought to be able to read the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we need to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also view it as a game. Mathematics is just a tool for its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is in your knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics has become far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t believe that people who deal with mathematics are far more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The term mathematics, for the first time, BC. It absolutely was employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry to the written literature, with Plato BC. It had been in the 380s. The word meaning is “what must be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, as opposed to the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, equivalent to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It is extremely hard to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents which are not based on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. In accordance with Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. As you know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suited to agriculture; It is the 3% portion that gives life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are extremely valuable. However, at the end of the floods due to the Nile river each year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Because the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each and every flood, the “geometricists” of their state, who’re accountable for these works, should come to take the required measurements and give the landowners just as much land as they had in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of the measurements and calculations. A second opinion concerning the birth of mathematics is the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to Aristotle, mathematics was created in Egypt. But it was born out of the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the requirement for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. In those days, the only intellectual class of countries such as Egypt was the priest class. Since the livelihood of the class is supplied by the general public or their state, they’ve much time for you to share with intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, just as others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views may be true; priests wished to simplify the work of the geometric, or they found out how exactly to calculate the areas of some geometric shapes such as triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and this way generated the birth of geometry.
We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period will be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The next period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover a period of 1000 years, known as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The 3rd term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, referred to as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The period we are living in, dating back to early 1900s, called age modern mathematics, will be the fifth period. I will try to provide information regarding the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the place of mathematics in social life and the fundamental features of mathematics in that period.
We shall start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two main reasons for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The next reason is the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the last of the fires happened during the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus is the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, on average 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text rather than paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are derived from the word papyrus. The average lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky because of moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key sourced elements of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are both of these papyri. The first of those papyrus is really a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus called the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to instruct math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to show operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are shown making use of their solutions. They’re the sort of questions people can encounter in everyday life, such as for instance sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the area of some geometric shapes. This really is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The next papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, is also BC. It is just a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, with the exception of the two. When it comes to other two questions, one may be the calculation of the quantity and section of the surface of the sphere part cut by a plane. Another is the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted while the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the location of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found how many pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained as of this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s will be the years once the Persians began to dominate the center east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the sole rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 is the date which was accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the start of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous that he went along to Egypt, stayed there for a time and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring along the shadow of the fantastic pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to along the existing shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming friends around him to show what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof based on reasoning, which is not based on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Additionally, Tales is the person who is considered the first philosopher in human history. He was created on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, went along to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians through the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a college and tried to teach individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior people of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected to each other with oath. The 2nd group consists of students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According in their mind, everything could be reduced to numbers; It has an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for instance 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… are the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem referred to as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the proper sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the very first major crisis of mathematics. Many of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by way of a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a couple of years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for several years under this or that name. As may be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.