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Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined while the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved as time passes; it is no further possible to spell it out it in several sentences. What I have to express now will undoubtedly be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is a skill like painting and music. The vast majority of mathematicians perform it as an art. Out of this standpoint, the fact that a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another besides mathematics does not concern them much. What matters for them is the depth of the job done, the novelty of the methods used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is a language. If the objective of science may be the universe; When it is to know, rule and direct everything in the universe, we should be able to browse the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we have to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also see it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool for its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is within our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is now far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not think that those that cope with mathematics tend to be more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for the first time, BC. It was utilized by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry in to the written literature, with Plato BC. It had been in the 380s. The phrase meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, instead of the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, comparable to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It is difficult to state anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that aren’t based on archaeological findings that require interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. In accordance with Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. As you know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suited to agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are really valuable. However, by the end of the floods brought on by the Nile river annually, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Because the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who are in charge of these works, should arrive at take the required measurements and give the landowners as much land as they’d in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of the measurements and calculations. A second opinion in regards to the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). In accordance with Aristotle, mathematics came to be in Egypt. However it was created out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the need for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. During those times, the only intellectual class of countries such as Egypt was the priest class. Since the livelihood of this class is supplied by the general public or their state, they have much time to share with intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of the period, in the same way others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both these views might be true; priests desired to simplify the task of the geometric, or they learned how to calculate the regions of some geometric shapes such as triangular and trapezoidal to check on that the distribution was fair, and in this manner resulted in the birth of geometry.
We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The initial period is going to be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The second period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover an amount of 1000 years, called the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The 3rd term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, called the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we are surviving in, dating back to the first 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will attempt to provide information regarding the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the place of mathematics in social life and the fundamental features of mathematics for the reason that period.
We shall start the initial semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two main reasons for this. The first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason is the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of these fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus could be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, on average 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text as opposed to paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are derived from the term papyrus. The common lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main sources of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are these two papyri. The very first of the papyrus is just a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus called the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy compiled by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to instruct math. In the introduction part, after a few exercises given to show operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions receive making use of their solutions. They’re the type of questions people can encounter in everyday life, such as for example sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the area of some geometric shapes. This really is pretty much our 8th grade mathematics. The next papyrus, known as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can also be BC. It is really a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, with the exception of the two. Are you aware that other two questions, one of them is the calculation of the volume and section of the surface of the sphere part cut by a plane. One other may be the question of finding the quantity of a pyramid cut by a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Both of these questions are accepted because the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the region of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found how many pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s are the years when the Persians started to dominate the center east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the sole rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, per year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 could be the date which was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the start of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started earlier than this period. A couple, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as being the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known that he went to Egypt, stayed there for a while and learned geometry in Egypt. During Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring the size of the shadow of the fantastic pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the length of the current shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to teach what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof centered on reasoning, that is not centered on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Additionally, Tales is the one who is considered the first philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a time, went along to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken to Babylon by capturing the Persians during the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a school and tried to teach individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior individuals of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected to one another with oath. The 2nd group consists of students attending school. Pythagoras school is based on number cult. According to them, everything could be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is just a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for instance 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… will be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the right sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a strong crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the first major crisis of mathematics. Lots of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by way of a raid led with a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for quite some time under this or that name. As could be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.