My Math Resources – Adding and Subtracting Integers Bulletin Board Posters | Math

# My Math Resources – Adding and Subtracting Integers Bulletin Board Posters

My Math Resources – Adding and Subtracting Integers Bulletin Board Posters

MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined while the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved over time; it is no more possible to explain it in a few sentences. What I have to state now will be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is a skill like painting and music. The great majority of mathematicians perform it being an art. From this perspective, the fact a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another other than mathematics does not concern them much. What matters for them could be the depth of the work done, the novelty of the strategy used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is a language. If the purpose of science is the universe; If it’s to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we ought to manage to read the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we need to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics can be an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also see it as a game. Mathematics is only a tool for its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is inside our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics has become far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t believe those that handle mathematics are more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for the first time, BC. It was utilized by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry to the written literature, with Plato BC. It was in the 380s. The word meaning is “what must be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, as opposed to the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages ​​were used.

It’s extremely hard to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents which are not predicated on archaeological findings that require interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. In accordance with Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. You may already know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suitable for agriculture; It is the 3% portion that provides life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are extremely valuable. However, at the conclusion of the floods caused by the Nile river annually, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Considering that the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who’re responsible for these works, should arrived at take the mandatory measurements and give the landowners as much land as they had in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of those measurements and calculations. A second opinion about the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). In accordance with Aristotle, mathematics came to be in Egypt. But it came to be out of the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the requirement for measurement-calculation brought on by Nile floods. In those days, the sole intellectual class of countries such as Egypt was the priest class. Because the livelihood with this class is provided by people or their state, they have much time for you to give intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that time, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both these views might be true; priests desired to simplify the job of the geometric, or they discovered just how to calculate the areas of some geometric shapes such as for example triangular and trapezoidal to check on that the distribution was fair, and in this manner led to the birth of geometry.

We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period is likely to be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The second period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover an amount of 1000 years, referred to as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The third term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, called the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we’re surviving in, dating back to early 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, could be the fifth period. I will try to provide details about the development of mathematics for the reason that period, contributing mathematicians, the place of mathematics in social life and the essential features of mathematics for the reason that period.

We will start the very first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two main reasons for this. The foremost is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason could be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of these fires happened throughout the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus could be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, normally 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to create text in place of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages ​​such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the word papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky because of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to possess been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main resources of our familiarity with Egyptian mathematics are both of these papyri. The very first of those papyrus is a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is a copy compiled by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to teach math. In the introduction part, after a few exercises given to show operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are made using their solutions. They are the type of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as for instance sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the region of ​​some geometric shapes. This is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The next papyrus, known as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can also be BC. It is a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the type of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, with the exception of the two. When it comes to other two questions, one of them is the calculation of the amount and part of ​​the surface of the sphere part cut by a plane. Another could be the question of finding the quantity of a pyramid cut by a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. These two questions are accepted since the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the region of ​​the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the number of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s would be the years once the Persians started initially to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the sole rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, per year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 is the date that was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a very bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started sooner than this period. Two people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous he went to Egypt, stayed there for a time and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the truly amazing pyramid by measuring along the shadow of the great pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the size of the existing shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming an organization around him to show what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof based on reasoning, which can be not based on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Additionally, Tales is the one who is considered the first philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a while, visited Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians through the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a school and tried to instruct the people he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior individuals of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected to one another with oath. The second group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is dependant on number cult. According for them, everything could be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is just a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for instance 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… are the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the proper sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a strong crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the very first major crisis of mathematics. Lots of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by way of a raid led with a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As may be understood from this information, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the foundation of Greek mathematics.