Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined because the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved over time; it’s no longer possible to describe it in several sentences. What I’ve to say now will undoubtedly be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is an art form like painting and music. The great majority of mathematicians perform it being an art. Using this point of view, the fact that a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another other than mathematics does not concern them much. What matters in their mind may be the depth of the job done, the novelty of the methods used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is a language. If the objective of science could be the universe; If it’s to comprehend, rule and direct everything in the universe, we must have the ability to browse the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we must know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also see it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool for its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is inside our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is now far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t believe that people who deal with mathematics are more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The term mathematics, for the very first time, BC. It was used by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry to the written literature, with Plato BC. It was in the 380s. The phrase meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, rather than the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, equivalent to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It is not possible to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents that are not centered on archaeological findings that require interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. As you know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t ideal for agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are incredibly valuable. However, at the conclusion of the floods caused by the Nile river each year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Considering that the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who are in charge of these works, should arrive at take the mandatory measurements and supply the landowners the maximum amount of land as they’d in the last year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of these measurements and calculations. An additional opinion about the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). In accordance with Aristotle, mathematics was created in Egypt. But it came to be from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the need for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. In those days, the only real intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Since the livelihood of the class is given by people or their state, they have much time to give to intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views might be true; priests wished to simplify the task of the geometric, or they found out how to calculate the aspects of some geometric shapes such as for example triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and this way led to the birth of geometry.
We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The very first period will be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover a period of 1000 years, referred to as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The 3rd term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, known as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The period we’re living in, dating back once again to early 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, could be the fifth period. I will try to offer information regarding the development of mathematics for the reason that period, contributing mathematicians, the area of mathematics in social life and the basic options that come with mathematics because period.
We will start the initial semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You will find two significant reasons for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason may be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of these fires happened throughout the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus is the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, an average of 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to create text as opposed to paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are derived from the phrase papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky because of moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to own been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key resources of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are these two papyri. The first of the papyrus is really a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus referred to as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy compiled by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to instruct math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to teach operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions get making use of their solutions. They’re the kind of questions people can encounter in everyday life, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the location of some geometric shapes. This really is just about our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, is also BC. It is just a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the sort of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, except for the two. As for the other two questions, one is the calculation of the amount and section of the surface of the sphere part cut by way of a plane. One other may be the question of finding the quantity of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Both of these questions are accepted while the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the area of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the number of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained only at that level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s will be the years when the Persians started initially to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the sole rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, annually later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 may be the date that was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a really bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started earlier than this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous he went to Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring the size of the shadow of the fantastic pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the length of the present shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming an organization around him to show what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, which can be not based on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Additionally, Tales is the person who is known as the very first philosopher in human history. He was born on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, went to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken fully to Babylon by capturing the Persians throughout the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a school and tried to teach the people he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior folks of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected to each other with oath. The 2nd group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is based on number cult. According for them, everything can be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for example 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… will be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the proper sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the first major crisis of mathematics. Lots of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for several years under this or that name. As may be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the cornerstone of Greek mathematics.