Mathematics is one of many oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined as the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved as time passes; it is no longer possible to spell it out it in several sentences. What I have to express now will soon be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art form like painting and music. A large proportion of mathematicians perform it being an art. Out of this viewpoint, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another apart from mathematics does not concern them much. What matters in their mind may be the depth of the task done, the novelty of the techniques used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is just a language. If the goal of science may be the universe; If it’s to know, rule and direct everything in the universe, we ought to be able to read the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we have to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also view it as a game. Mathematics is just a tool for its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is in your knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is now far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t genuinely believe that those who cope with mathematics tend to be more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The term mathematics, for the first time, BC. It was employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry to the written literature, with Plato BC. It had been in the 380s. The word meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, as opposed to the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, equivalent to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It is extremely hard to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents that are not centered on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We are able to say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. Everbody knows, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suited to agriculture; It is the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are really valuable. However, at the end of the floods due to the Nile river each year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Considering that the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each flood, the “geometricists” of their state, that are responsible for these works, should come to take the necessary measurements and supply the landowners as much land as they had in the last year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of these measurements and calculations. An additional opinion in regards to the birth of mathematics is the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. Nonetheless it came to be from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the requirement for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. In those days, the only intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Since the livelihood with this class is provided by the general public or the state, they’ve much time for you to give intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.These two views might be true; priests wanted to simplify the work of the geometric, or they discovered how exactly to calculate the aspects of some geometric shapes such as for instance triangular and trapezoidal to check that the distribution was fair, and in this way led to the birth of geometry.
We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period is going to be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The second period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover a period of 1000 years, called the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The 3rd term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, referred to as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we’re residing in, dating back to the early 1900s, called age modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will endeavour to give details about the development of mathematics in that period, contributing mathematicians, the spot of mathematics in social life and the fundamental top features of mathematics because period.
We shall start the very first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two major causes for this. The first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The next reason may be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the last of the fires happened during the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus is the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, normally 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to write text rather than paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are based on the word papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky because of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main resources of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are these two papyri. The first of these papyrus is just a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus referred to as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy compiled by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to instruct math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to show operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions receive making use of their solutions. These are the kind of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the region of some geometric shapes. This really is just about our 8th grade mathematics. The next papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can be BC. It is just a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, aside from the two. When it comes to other two questions, one could be the calculation of the volume and section of the surface of the sphere part cut by a plane. Another could be the question of finding the amount of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. These two questions are accepted while the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the location of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the number of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained only at that level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s would be the years once the Persians started initially to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only real rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, annually later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 is the date that was accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the start of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started earlier than this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous that he went along to Egypt, stayed there for a while and learned geometry in Egypt. During Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring the size of the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the size of the present shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming friends around him to teach what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, that is not predicated on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. In addition, Tales is the one who is recognized as the first philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a time, went along to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians during the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a college and tried to teach the people he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior people of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected to each other with oath. The next group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is dependant on number cult. According to them, everything can be reduced to numbers; It comes with an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for instance 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… are the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem referred to as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the best sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a heavy crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the initial major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by a raid led with a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after many years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As may be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.