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MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined since the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved over time; it’s no more possible to describe it in several sentences. What I’ve to express now is going to be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art form like painting and music. The vast majority of mathematicians perform it being an art. From this perspective, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another other than mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters for them is the depth of the job done, the novelty of the techniques used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is really a language. If the objective of science may be the universe; If it is to comprehend, rule and direct everything in the universe, we should be able to browse the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we must know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also view it as a game. Mathematics is just a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is within our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t think that those that cope with mathematics are far more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for initially, BC. It had been employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry to the written literature, with Plato BC. It was in the 380s. The phrase meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, instead of the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, comparable to it in geometry or old languages ​​were used.

It is extremely hard to state anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that are not centered on archaeological findings that want interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We are able to say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. Everbody knows, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not ideal for agriculture; It is the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are extremely valuable. However, by the end of the floods caused by the Nile river each year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Because the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who’re responsible for these works, should arrive at take the mandatory measurements and provide the landowners the maximum amount of land as they had in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of those measurements and calculations. Another opinion concerning the birth of mathematics is usually the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to Aristotle, mathematics came to be in Egypt. But it was created out of the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the need for measurement-calculation due to Nile floods. During those times, the sole intellectual class of countries such as for example Egypt was the priest class. Because the livelihood of the class is given by the general public or the state, they’ve much time and energy to give to intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, in the same way others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both these views may be true; priests wished to simplify the job of the geometric, or they found out just how to calculate the regions of some geometric shapes such as for instance triangular and trapezoidal to check that the distribution was fair, and in this way resulted in the birth of geometry.

We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The initial period will soon be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover a period of 1000 years, referred to as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The third term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, known as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we are living in, dating back once again to the first 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will attempt to provide information about the development of mathematics in that period, contributing mathematicians, the area of mathematics in social life and the fundamental top features of mathematics in that period.

We shall start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You can find two significant reasons for this. The first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The next reason may be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the final of these fires happened throughout the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus is the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, normally 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to create text as opposed to paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages ​​such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the word papyrus. The common lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. Up to now, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main resources of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The first of these papyrus is just a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy published by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to teach math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to show operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are shown using their solutions. They’re the sort of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the location of ​​some geometric shapes. This is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The next papyrus, known as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can also be BC. It is a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the sort of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, aside from the two. As for the other two questions, one may be the calculation of the volume and area of ​​the surface of the sphere part cut with a plane. One other may be the question of finding the quantity of a pyramid cut by way of a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Both of these questions are accepted whilst the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the region of ​​the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the amount of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s are the years when the Persians started initially to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 is the date that has been accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a really bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known that he visited Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. During Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring the size of the shadow of the fantastic pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the size of the present shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming an organization around him to instruct what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof centered on reasoning, which is not centered on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. In addition, Tales is the one who is recognized as the first philosopher in human history. He was created on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, went along to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken fully to Babylon by capturing the Persians during the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a school and tried to instruct the people he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior individuals of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected together with oath. The next group includes students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According to them, everything may be reduced to numbers; It has an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for instance 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… will be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem referred to as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the best sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a strong crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the very first major crisis of mathematics. Many of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a couple of years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for several years under this or that name. As can be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.

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