Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined as the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved as time passes; it is no longer possible to describe it in several sentences. What I have to express now will be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art like painting and music. The great majority of mathematicians perform it as an art. Out of this standpoint, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another apart from mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters to them may be the depth of the job done, the novelty of the techniques used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is just a language. If the objective of science could be the universe; If it is to know, rule and direct everything in the universe, we ought to be able to browse the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we need to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also see it as a game. Mathematics is just a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is in your knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics has become far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t believe that those who cope with mathematics are far more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics than the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The word mathematics, for the very first time, BC. It absolutely was employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry into the written literature, with Plato BC. It absolutely was in the 380s. The word meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, rather than the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, comparable to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It’s difficult to state anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that are not centered on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We are able to say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. As you know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t ideal for agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that provides life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are extremely valuable. However, by the end of the floods due to the Nile river every year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Considering that the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each flood, the “geometricists” of the state, that are responsible for these works, should come to take the necessary measurements and supply the landowners as much land as they’d in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of the measurements and calculations. An additional opinion in regards to the birth of mathematics is usually the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). In accordance with Aristotle, mathematics came to be in Egypt. Nonetheless it was born out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the requirement for measurement-calculation brought on by Nile floods. At that time, the sole intellectual class of countries such as for example Egypt was the priest class. Because the livelihood of the class is given by people or their state, they’ve much time for you to give intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.These two views may be true; priests wished to simplify the work of the geometric, or they discovered just how to calculate the aspects of some geometric shapes such as for instance triangular and trapezoidal to check that the distribution was fair, and this way generated the birth of geometry.
We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The very first period will be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The next period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover an amount of 1000 years, called the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The next term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, known as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we are surviving in, dating back again to the first 1900s, called age modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will try to give information about the development of mathematics in that period, contributing mathematicians, the place of mathematics in social life and the fundamental options that come with mathematics for the reason that period.
We shall start the initial semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two significant reasons for this. The foremost is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The next reason is the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the last of those fires happened during the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus is the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, typically 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text as opposed to paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the word papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main sourced elements of our familiarity with Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The very first of those papyrus is just a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is a copy compiled by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to show math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are made making use of their solutions. They are the kind of questions people can encounter in lifestyle, such as for example sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the area of some geometric shapes. This really is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The next papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can be BC. It is really a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the type of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, with the exception of the two. As for the other two questions, one of them may be the calculation of the volume and section of the surface of the sphere part cut with a plane. The other is the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut by a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Both of these questions are accepted as the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the region of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the number of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s will be the years when the Persians began to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, per year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 is the date which was accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a really bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started sooner than this period. A couple, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous he went along to Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. Whilst in Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the fantastic pyramid by measuring the size of the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to along the present shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming friends around him to instruct what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, which will be not predicated on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Additionally, Tales is the one who is known as the first philosopher in human history. He was born on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, went to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians throughout the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a college and tried to teach the people he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior folks of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected to each other with oath. The 2nd group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According for them, everything can be reduced to numbers; It has an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… will be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the proper sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a heavy crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the very first major crisis of mathematics. Lots of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led by way of a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As can be understood from this information, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.