Mathematics is one of the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined while the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved with time; it’s no longer possible to spell it out it in a few sentences. What I have to say now will soon be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is an art like painting and music. The vast majority of mathematicians perform it as an art. From this viewpoint, the fact a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another apart from mathematics does not concern them much. What matters in their mind is the depth of the work done, the novelty of the techniques used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is just a language. If the objective of science could be the universe; If it is to comprehend, rule and direct everything in the universe, we ought to be able to see the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we have to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also see it as a game. Mathematics is just a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is in your knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not think that those who deal with mathematics tend to be more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics than the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The word mathematics, for initially, BC. It had been employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry into the written literature, with Plato BC. It was in the 380s. The phrase meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, rather than the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It’s extremely hard to express anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that are not predicated on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We can say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. You may already know, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not suited to agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that provides life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are really valuable. However, at the end of the floods due to the Nile river every year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Because the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each and every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who’re responsible for these works, should come to take the mandatory measurements and give the landowners as much land as they had in the previous year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of the measurements and calculations. An additional opinion concerning the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to Aristotle, mathematics came to be in Egypt. However it was born out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the necessity for measurement-calculation due to Nile floods. At that time, the sole intellectual class of countries such as for example Egypt was the priest class. Since the livelihood with this class is provided by people or their state, they’ve much time and energy to share with intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, in the same way others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both these views may be true; priests wanted to simplify the job of the geometric, or they discovered just how to calculate the areas of some geometric shapes such as for example triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and this way resulted in the birth of geometry.
We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The very first period is going to be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The second period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover a period of 1000 years, called the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The third term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, referred to as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we are surviving in, dating back once again to the early 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will endeavour to offer details about the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the spot of mathematics in social life and the essential features of mathematics because period.
We shall start the very first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You will find two main reasons for this. The foremost is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason is the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of the fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, normally 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to create text in place of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are based on the phrase papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key sources of our familiarity with Egyptian mathematics are these two papyri. The initial of these papyrus is really a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus referred to as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is just a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to instruct math. In the introduction part, after a few exercises given to teach operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions receive making use of their solutions. They are the sort of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the location of some geometric shapes. This really is pretty much our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can be BC. It is really a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, aside from the two. Are you aware that other two questions, one of them could be the calculation of the quantity and section of the surface of the sphere part cut with a plane. The other is the question of finding the quantity of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted because the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the area of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found how many pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s are the years when the Persians began to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the sole rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 may be the date which was accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the start of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known that he went to Egypt, stayed there for a time and learned geometry in Egypt. Whilst in Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring the size of the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the size of the existing shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to teach what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof based on reasoning, that will be not based on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Furthermore, Tales is the person who is recognized as the first philosopher in human history. He was created on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a while, went to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken fully to Babylon by capturing the Persians throughout the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a school and tried to instruct the people he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior people of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected to one another with oath. The second group consists of students attending school. Pythagoras school is dependant on number cult. According in their mind, everything may be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for example 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… will be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem referred to as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the proper sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the very first major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a couple of years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for quite some time under this or that name. As could be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.