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Mathematics is one of many oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined as the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved with time; it’s no more possible to explain it in a few sentences. What I have to state now will be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is a skill like painting and music. The vast majority of mathematicians perform it being an art. Out of this viewpoint, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another besides mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters to them could be the depth of the job done, the novelty of the strategy used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is a language. If the objective of science is the universe; If it is to know, rule and direct everything in the universe, we should have the ability to see the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we must know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also see it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is in your knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t genuinely believe that those who handle mathematics are far more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics than the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for initially, BC. It was used by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry to the written literature, with Plato BC. It was in the 380s. The phrase meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, instead of the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It is difficult to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that are not predicated on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Based on Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. You may already know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suitable for agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are extremely valuable. However, at the end of the floods caused by the Nile river annually, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Because the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each and every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who’re responsible for these works, should come to take the necessary measurements and supply the landowners as much land as they had in the previous year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of these measurements and calculations. A second opinion about the birth of mathematics is usually the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). Based on Aristotle, mathematics came to be in Egypt. Nonetheless it came to be out of the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the need for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. During those times, the only intellectual class of countries such as Egypt was the priest class. Since the livelihood of the class is supplied by people or the state, they have much time to give to intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views might be true; priests wished to simplify the task of the geometric, or they found out how to calculate the areas of some geometric shapes such as triangular and trapezoidal to check that the distribution was fair, and in this manner resulted in the birth of geometry.
We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The initial period is going to be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The second period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover a period of 1000 years, called the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The third term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, called the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we’re surviving in, dating back to the first 1900s, called age modern mathematics, could be the fifth period. I will endeavour to offer information about the development of mathematics for the reason that period, contributing mathematicians, the area of mathematics in social life and the essential features of mathematics in that period.
We will start the initial semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You will find two major causes for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason may be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of these fires happened during the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, an average of 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to create text as opposed to paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are based on the phrase papyrus. The common lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky because of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Up to now, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key resources of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The very first of the papyrus is a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is a copy compiled by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to instruct math. In the introduction part, after having a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions receive using their solutions. They’re the type of questions people can encounter in everyday life, such as for example sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the area of some geometric shapes. That is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, called the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can be BC. It is just a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the type of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, except for the two. When it comes to other two questions, one is the calculation of the amount and part of the surface of the sphere part cut with a plane. Another may be the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Both of these questions are accepted while the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the location of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the number of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained only at that level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s would be the years when the Persians began to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the sole rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, annually later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 could be the date that was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started sooner than this period. Two people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known that he went along to Egypt, stayed there for a time and learned geometry in Egypt. During Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the truly amazing pyramid by measuring along the shadow of the great pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the size of the present shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming an organization around him to teach what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, that will be not based on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Furthermore, Tales is the person who is considered the initial philosopher in human history. He was created on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, visited Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians throughout the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a college and tried to instruct individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior people of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected together with oath. The second group includes students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According to them, everything can be reduced to numbers; It has an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… would be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the right sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a strong crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the first major crisis of mathematics. Lots of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after many years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As may be understood from this information, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the cornerstone of Greek mathematics.