Mathematics is one of the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined because the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved with time; it is no longer possible to describe it in a couple of sentences. What I have to state now will soon be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is an art like painting and music. The great majority of mathematicians perform it being an art. Out of this point of view, the fact that a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another apart from mathematics does not concern them much. What matters to them is the depth of the job done, the novelty of the strategy used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is really a language. If the objective of science is the universe; When it is to know, rule and direct everything in the universe, we ought to manage to browse the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we must know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also view it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool for its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is inside our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is now far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not genuinely believe that those who cope with mathematics are far more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for initially, BC. It was utilized by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry into the written literature, with Plato BC. It had been in the 380s. The word meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, as opposed to the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, equivalent to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It’s not possible to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that aren’t predicated on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We are able to say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. Everbody knows, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suited to agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that gives life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are incredibly valuable. However, by the end of the floods due to the Nile river each year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Because the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each and every flood, the “geometricists” of their state, who are in charge of these works, should come to take the required measurements and supply the landowners as much land as they’d in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of those measurements and calculations. An additional opinion in regards to the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). In accordance with Aristotle, mathematics was created in Egypt. Nonetheless it came to be out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the necessity for measurement-calculation brought on by Nile floods. At that time, the only real intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Because the livelihood of this class is given by the public or the state, they have much time and energy to give to intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of the period, in the same way others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views may be true; priests wanted to simplify the job of the geometric, or they learned how to calculate the regions of some geometric shapes such as triangular and trapezoidal to check on that the distribution was fair, and in this manner led to the birth of geometry.
We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The initial period will soon be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover a period of 1000 years, called the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The next term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, referred to as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we’re surviving in, dating back once again to the early 1900s, called age modern mathematics, will be the fifth period. I will attempt to give details about the development of mathematics in that period, contributing mathematicians, the place of mathematics in social life and the essential features of mathematics in that period.
We shall start the initial semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You will find two major causes for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason could be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of these fires happened throughout the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, on average 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text as opposed to paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the word papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky because of moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to own been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main sources of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The very first of those papyrus is just a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus called the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is just a copy compiled by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to teach math. In the introduction part, after having a few exercises given to show operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are shown using their solutions. They are the kind of questions people can encounter in lifestyle, such as for instance sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the location of some geometric shapes. This really is just about our 8th grade mathematics. The second papyrus, known as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can also be BC. It is just a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the sort of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, with the exception of the two. As for the other two questions, one is the calculation of the amount and section of the surface of the sphere part cut by a plane. Another is the question of finding the amount of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Both of these questions are accepted whilst the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the region of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found how many pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained only at that level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s would be the years once the Persians started to dominate the center east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only real rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, per year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 could be the date that was accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a very bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known that he visited Egypt, stayed there for a while and learned geometry in Egypt. Whilst in Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring the size of the shadow of the great pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the size of the existing shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming friends around him to instruct what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof based on reasoning, that is not predicated on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Furthermore, Tales is the one who is considered the first philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a while, visited Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians during the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a school and tried to instruct the people he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior individuals of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected together with oath. The 2nd group includes students attending school. Pythagoras school is dependant on number cult. According for them, everything can be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for example 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… would be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the right sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the first major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after many years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As can be understood from this information, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.