# Pattern Play and Number Cards

Pattern Play & Number Cards, 2 math activities to reinforce counting skills & visual discrimination, plus a literary component with the book Ten Black Dots // @mamamissblog

MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is one of the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined since the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved as time passes; it is no longer possible to spell it out it in a few sentences. What I’ve to say now is going to be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is a skill like painting and music. The great majority of mathematicians perform it as an art. Out of this viewpoint, the fact a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another apart from mathematics does not concern them much. What matters in their mind is the depth of the task done, the novelty of the methods used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is just a language. If the goal of science could be the universe; If it’s to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we ought to have the ability to see the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we must know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also view it as a game. Mathematics is only a tool because of its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is in your knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not believe people who deal with mathematics tend to be more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The word mathematics, for initially, BC. It had been used by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry in to the written literature, with Plato BC. It had been in the 380s. The word meaning is “what must be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, rather than the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, equivalent to it in geometry or old languages were used.

It’s difficult to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that are not predicated on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We are able to say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. In accordance with Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. As you know, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not suited to agriculture; It is the 3% portion that provides life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are incredibly valuable. However, by the end of the floods caused by the Nile river each year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Since the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after every flood, the “geometricists” of their state, that are accountable for these works, should arrive at take the required measurements and supply the landowners as much land as they had in the previous year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of those measurements and calculations. A second opinion about the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). Based on Aristotle, mathematics came to be in Egypt. Nonetheless it was created from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the requirement for measurement-calculation brought on by Nile floods. In those days, the only real intellectual class of countries such as for example Egypt was the priest class. Considering that the livelihood with this class is supplied by the public or their state, they’ve much time and energy to give intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that time, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.These two views may be true; priests wanted to simplify the task of the geometric, or they discovered how to calculate the aspects of some geometric shapes such as for instance triangular and trapezoidal to check that the distribution was fair, and this way led to the birth of geometry.

We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The initial period is likely to be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The next period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover an amount of 1000 years, known as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The third term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, referred to as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we’re living in, dating back to early 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, could be the fifth period. I will endeavour to give information regarding the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the spot of mathematics in social life and the essential options that come with mathematics in that period.

We will start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You can find two significant reasons for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The 2nd reason may be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the last of these fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus could be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, typically 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to write text in place of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are derived from the phrase papyrus. The average lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. Up to now, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to possess been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main resources of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are these two papyri. The first of these papyrus is just a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus called the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy published by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to teach math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to show operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are shown with their solutions. They’re the type of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as for instance sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the location of some geometric shapes. This really is pretty much our 8th grade mathematics. The next papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can also be BC. It is a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the sort of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, except for the two. As for the other two questions, one of them could be the calculation of the quantity and section of the surface of the sphere part cut with a plane. One other is the question of finding the amount of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted whilst the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the location of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the number of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained only at that level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s would be the years when the Persians started initially to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only real rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 is the date that has been accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the start of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. Two people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous that he visited Egypt, stayed there for a time and learned geometry in Egypt. During Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring along the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the size of the existing shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming friends around him to teach what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, that will be not based on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. In addition, Tales is the person who is considered the very first philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a while, visited Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken fully to Babylon by capturing the Persians through the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a college and tried to show the folks he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior people of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected to each other with oath. The next group includes students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According to them, everything can be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… are the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem called the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the right sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the first major crisis of mathematics. Many of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by a raid led with a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As can be understood from these records, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the foundation of Greek mathematics.

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