Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined because the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved with time; it’s no longer possible to explain it in several sentences. What I have to state now is going to be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art like painting and music. The vast majority of mathematicians perform it being an art. Out of this perspective, the fact a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another other than mathematics does not concern them much. What matters to them may be the depth of the work done, the novelty of the techniques used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is a language. If the goal of science may be the universe; If it’s to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we must have the ability to see the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we have to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also view it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool for its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is inside our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t believe people who deal with mathematics are far more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics than the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The term mathematics, for the very first time, BC. It had been employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry in to the written literature, with Plato BC. It absolutely was in the 380s. The word meaning is “what must be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, rather than the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It’s extremely hard to express anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that are not based on archaeological findings that want interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. You may already know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suited to agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that gives life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are really valuable. However, at the conclusion of the floods caused by the Nile river every year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Because the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who are responsible for these works, should arrive at take the necessary measurements and provide the landowners just as much land as they had in the previous year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of the measurements and calculations. Another opinion in regards to the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). In accordance with Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. Nonetheless it was born from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the requirement for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. During those times, the only intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Considering that the livelihood of the class is supplied by the general public or their state, they have much time and energy to share with intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that time, in the same way others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both these views may be true; priests wanted to simplify the work of the geometric, or they found out how to calculate the aspects of some geometric shapes such as for instance triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and this way resulted in the birth of geometry.
We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The very first period will be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The second period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover a period of 1000 years, called the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The 3rd term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, called the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The period we’re living in, dating back once again to the early 1900s, called age modern mathematics, could be the fifth period. I will try to give information regarding the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the place of mathematics in social life and the basic top features of mathematics for the reason that period.
We shall start the initial semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two main reasons for this. The foremost is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason may be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the last of these fires happened during the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, normally 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text as opposed to paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are based on the word papyrus. The common lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to own been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key resources of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The very first of those papyrus is really a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is a copy compiled by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to teach math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions get making use of their solutions. They’re the type of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as for example sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the location of some geometric shapes. This is just about our 8th grade mathematics. The second papyrus, called the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, is also BC. It is really a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, except for the two. When it comes to other two questions, one of them may be the calculation of the quantity and area of the surface of the sphere part cut with a plane. The other could be the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. These two questions are accepted because the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the location of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found how many pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s will be the years when the Persians began to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, per year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 is the date which was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of a very bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started earlier than this period. A couple, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as being the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known that he went to Egypt, stayed there for a time and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the truly amazing pyramid by measuring along the shadow of the great pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to along the current shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming an organization around him to teach what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof based on reasoning, that is not centered on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Furthermore, Tales is the one who is known as the very first philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, went along to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians throughout the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a college and tried to show the people he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior individuals of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected together with oath. The next group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is dependant on number cult. According to them, everything may be reduced to numbers; It comes with an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is just a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… are the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the proper sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a heavy crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the very first major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a couple of years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for several years under this or that name. As could be understood from this information, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.