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MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined whilst the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved with time; it’s no more possible to describe it in a few sentences. What I have to state now will be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is a skill like painting and music. The great majority of mathematicians perform it as an art. Out of this point of view, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another besides mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters to them may be the depth of the job done, the novelty of the strategy used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is a language. If the purpose of science is the universe; If it’s to know, rule and direct everything in the universe, we must manage to see the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we must know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also view it as a game. Mathematics is only a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is in your knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t genuinely believe that those who deal with mathematics tend to be more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics than the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for the first time, BC. It absolutely was employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry into the written literature, with Plato BC. It had been in the 380s. The term meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, as opposed to the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages ​​were used.

It’s not possible to express anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that are not based on archaeological findings that require interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We can say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. You may already know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suited to agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that provides life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are extremely valuable. However, by the end of the floods caused by the Nile river each year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Since the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each and every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who are accountable for these works, should come to take the necessary measurements and provide the landowners just as much land as they had in the previous year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of these measurements and calculations. An additional opinion concerning the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). Based on Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. But it was created out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the requirement for measurement-calculation brought on by Nile floods. In those days, the sole intellectual class of countries such as Egypt was the priest class. Considering that the livelihood of this class is given by people or the state, they’ve much time for you to give intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of the period, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.These two views might be true; priests wished to simplify the work of the geometric, or they learned just how to calculate the regions of some geometric shapes such as for instance triangular and trapezoidal to check on that the distribution was fair, and in this manner led to the birth of geometry.

We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The initial period will soon be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover an amount of 1000 years, called the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The next term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, referred to as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we are residing in, dating back once again to the first 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will attempt to offer details about the development of mathematics for the reason that period, contributing mathematicians, the place of mathematics in social life and the basic top features of mathematics in that period.

We shall start the initial semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You will find two major causes for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The 2nd reason may be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of those fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, on average 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to write text rather than paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages ​​such as “Paper”, “papier” are based on the word papyrus. The average lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky because of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Up to now, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to own been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main resources of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are both of these papyri. The first of the papyrus is a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is just a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to show math. In the introduction part, after having a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are made using their solutions. They’re the sort of questions people can encounter in lifestyle, such as for example sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the location of ​​some geometric shapes. That is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, is also BC. It is really a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the sort of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, aside from the two. When it comes to other two questions, one of them is the calculation of the amount and area of ​​the surface of the sphere part cut with a plane. The other is the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut by way of a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted whilst the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the location of ​​the circle was proportional to its diameter and found how many pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained only at that level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s are the years when the Persians began to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only real rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, per year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 could be the date which was accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a really bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started earlier than this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as being the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous that he went to Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the truly amazing pyramid by measuring the size of the shadow of the fantastic pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the size of the present shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming friends around him to show what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, that is not predicated on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Furthermore, Tales is the one who is recognized as the first philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a while, visited Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians during the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a school and tried to show the folks he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior individuals of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected together with oath. The second group includes students attending school. Pythagoras school is dependant on number cult. According for them, everything could be reduced to numbers; It comes with an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is just a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for example 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… will be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem called the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the right sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a strong crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the initial major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led by way of a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a couple of years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for quite some time under this or that name. As can be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the foundation of Greek mathematics.

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