# Rounding Anchor Chart – Teaching Rounding to Third Graders

Rounding Anchor Chart for Third Grade Math Classroom

MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined as the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved with time; it’s no longer possible to explain it in a couple of sentences. What I have to say now will soon be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is an art like painting and music. The great majority of mathematicians perform it being an art. Using this perspective, the fact a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another besides mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters for them is the depth of the job done, the novelty of the techniques used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is really a language. If the purpose of science could be the universe; When it is to know, rule and direct everything in the universe, we should be able to see the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we have to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also notice it as a game. Mathematics is only a tool because of its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is within our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t believe people who cope with mathematics are far more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for initially, BC. It had been employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry in to the written literature, with Plato BC. It was in the 380s. The term meaning is “what must be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, instead of the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, equivalent to it in geometry or old languages were used.

It is not possible to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents which are not based on archaeological findings that want interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We can say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Based on Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. Everbody knows, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suitable for agriculture; It is the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are incredibly valuable. However, at the conclusion of the floods brought on by the Nile river each year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Because the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each and every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who are in charge of these works, should come to take the necessary measurements and give the landowners as much land as they had in the previous year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of the measurements and calculations. An additional opinion about the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). Based on Aristotle, mathematics came to be in Egypt. However it came to be out of the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the necessity for measurement-calculation due to Nile floods. At that time, the only intellectual class of countries such as Egypt was the priest class. Since the livelihood with this class is supplied by the public or the state, they’ve much time and energy to share with intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of the period, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views might be true; priests wished to simplify the work of the geometric, or they learned just how to calculate the regions of some geometric shapes such as triangular and trapezoidal to check that the distribution was fair, and in this manner resulted in the birth of geometry.

We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The very first period will undoubtedly be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The second period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover an amount of 1000 years, referred to as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The next term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, known as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we are living in, dating back once again to the first 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, could be the fifth period. I will try to give details about the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the area of mathematics in social life and the fundamental top features of mathematics in that period.

We will start the initial semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You will find two main reasons for this. The first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The next reason could be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of the fires happened throughout the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, normally 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text in place of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are based on the phrase papyrus. The common lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky because of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to own been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main sources of our familiarity with Egyptian mathematics are both of these papyri. The initial of these papyrus is a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus referred to as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to teach math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to show operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are made with their solutions. They are the type of questions people can encounter in everyday life, such as for example sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the area of some geometric shapes. That is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The second papyrus, known as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can also be BC. It is a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the sort of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, except for the two. Are you aware that other two questions, one of them is the calculation of the volume and section of the surface of the sphere part cut by way of a plane. Another may be the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut by a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted whilst the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the location of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the number of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained as of this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s would be the years when the Persians started to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the sole rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, per year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 is the date which was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as being the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous that he went to Egypt, stayed there for a while and learned geometry in Egypt. During Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring along the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the size of the existing shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to show what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof centered on reasoning, which is not centered on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Additionally, Tales is the person who is recognized as the initial philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, went along to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken fully to Babylon by capturing the Persians through the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a school and tried to show individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior people of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected together with oath. The 2nd group includes students attending school. Pythagoras school is based on number cult. According to them, everything can be reduced to numbers; It has an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is just a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for example 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… would be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the right sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a strong crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the first major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by way of a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for several years under this or that name. As could be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the cornerstone of Greek mathematics.

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