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MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is one of the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined because the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved with time; it is no longer possible to spell it out it in several sentences. What I’ve to say now is likely to be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is a skill like painting and music. A large proportion of mathematicians perform it being an art. From this viewpoint, the fact a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another apart from mathematics does not concern them much. What matters in their mind could be the depth of the task done, the novelty of the techniques used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is a language. If the purpose of science could be the universe; When it is to comprehend, rule and direct everything in the universe, we should manage to see the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we have to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics can be an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also see it as a game. Mathematics is just a tool for its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is in your knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is now far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t believe that those who deal with mathematics tend to be more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for the first time, BC. It absolutely was utilized by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry in to the written literature, with Plato BC. It had been in the 380s. The phrase meaning is “what must be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, instead of the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, comparable to it in geometry or old languages ​​were used.

It’s not possible to express anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that are not based on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. Everbody knows, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not suited to agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that provides life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are extremely valuable. However, at the conclusion of the floods brought on by the Nile river annually, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Since the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after every flood, the “geometricists” of their state, that are in charge of these works, should arrived at take the necessary measurements and supply the landowners just as much land as they had in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of these measurements and calculations. A second opinion concerning the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). Based on Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. But it was created from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the need for measurement-calculation due to Nile floods. During those times, the sole intellectual class of countries such as for example Egypt was the priest class. Considering that the livelihood with this class is provided by the general public or their state, they’ve much time for you to give to intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both these views might be true; priests desired to simplify the task of the geometric, or they found out how exactly to calculate the areas of some geometric shapes such as for instance triangular and trapezoidal to check on that the distribution was fair, and in this way resulted in the birth of geometry.

We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period is going to be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover a period of 1000 years, called the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The third term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, known as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The period we’re residing in, dating back to the early 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will endeavour to offer information about the development of mathematics for the reason that period, contributing mathematicians, the area of mathematics in social life and the basic top features of mathematics for the reason that period.

We will start the very first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two main reasons for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The next reason is the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the final of those fires happened throughout the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, an average of 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to write text rather than paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages ​​such as “Paper”, “papier” are derived from the word papyrus. The common lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky because of moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to own been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key resources of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are these two papyri. The very first of these papyrus is really a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus referred to as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to instruct math. In the introduction part, after a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are shown using their solutions. They are the sort of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as for example sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the location of ​​some geometric shapes. This is pretty much our 8th grade mathematics. The second papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can be BC. It is just a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, except for the two. As for the other two questions, one could be the calculation of the volume and part of ​​the surface of the sphere part cut with a plane. One other is the question of finding the amount of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. These two questions are accepted since the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the area of ​​the circle was proportional to its diameter and found how many pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained only at that level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s will be the years when the Persians started initially to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the sole rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, annually later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 could be the date which was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a really bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous that he visited Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the fantastic pyramid by measuring the size of the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to along the present shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming an organization around him to instruct what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof centered on reasoning, that will be not predicated on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. In addition, Tales is the one who is recognized as the very first philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, went along to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians during the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a college and tried to teach individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior folks of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected to one another with oath. The second group consists of students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According to them, everything may be reduced to numbers; It has an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… are the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem referred to as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the best sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a heavy crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the initial major crisis of mathematics. Lots of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by way of a raid led with a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a couple of years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for quite some time under this or that name. As may be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the foundation of Greek mathematics.