Mathematics is one of many oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined whilst the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved over time; it is no longer possible to spell it out it in a couple of sentences. What I’ve to say now will soon be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is a skill like painting and music. The vast majority of mathematicians perform it being an art. Using this perspective, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another apart from mathematics does not concern them much. What matters in their mind could be the depth of the job done, the novelty of the techniques used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is really a language. If the goal of science may be the universe; If it is to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we should manage to see the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we need to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics can be an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also view it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool because of its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is inside our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics has become far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t genuinely believe that people who deal with mathematics are far more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for the very first time, BC. It had been employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry into the written literature, with Plato BC. It absolutely was in the 380s. The term meaning is “what must be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, instead of the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It’s difficult to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that aren’t predicated on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. In accordance with Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. Everbody knows, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suited to agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are really valuable. However, by the end of the floods brought on by the Nile river annually, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Because the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after every flood, the “geometricists” of their state, who’re accountable for these works, should come to take the necessary measurements and supply the landowners as much land as they had in the last year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of those measurements and calculations. An additional opinion about the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). Based on Aristotle, mathematics was created in Egypt. But it came to be from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the need for measurement-calculation due to Nile floods. In those days, the only real intellectual class of countries such as Egypt was the priest class. Considering that the livelihood of the class is given by the general public or their state, they’ve much time to give to intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of the period, just as others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.These two views may be true; priests desired to simplify the task of the geometric, or they discovered just how to calculate the regions of some geometric shapes such as triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and in this manner generated the birth of geometry.
We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period will be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The second period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover an amount of 1000 years, referred to as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The next term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, called the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The period we are surviving in, dating back to early 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, will be the fifth period. I will try to offer information about the development of mathematics for the reason that period, contributing mathematicians, the area of mathematics in social life and the basic features of mathematics because period.
We will start the initial semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You can find two major causes for this. The first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The next reason could be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the final of these fires happened throughout the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, an average of 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text rather than paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are derived from the word papyrus. The common lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key sourced elements of our familiarity with Egyptian mathematics are these two papyri. The initial of these papyrus is really a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus called the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is just a copy compiled by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to show math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are made making use of their solutions. They are the type of questions people can encounter in everyday life, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the area of some geometric shapes. This is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, called the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can be BC. It is just a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, except for the two. When it comes to other two questions, one is the calculation of the amount and area of the surface of the sphere part cut by way of a plane. The other is the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut by way of a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. These two questions are accepted since the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the area of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the number of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained as of this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s would be the years when the Persians started initially to dominate the center east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, per year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 could be the date which was accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a very bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. A couple, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known that he went along to Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. During Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the length of the present shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to show what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof based on reasoning, that will be not centered on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Furthermore, Tales is the one who is considered the very first philosopher in human history. He was born on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, went along to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken to Babylon by capturing the Persians during the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a school and tried to teach individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior people of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected to each other with oath. The 2nd group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According in their mind, everything can be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for instance 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… will be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem called the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the proper sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the initial major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a couple of years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As could be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the foundation of Greek mathematics.