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Mathematics is one of the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined whilst the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved as time passes; it’s no longer possible to describe it in several sentences. What I’ve to state now will undoubtedly be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is an art like painting and music. The vast majority of mathematicians perform it being an art. Using this perspective, the fact a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another besides mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters to them may be the depth of the task done, the novelty of the strategy used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is really a language. If the objective of science may be the universe; If it’s to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we ought to be able to see the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we must know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also view it as a game. Mathematics is only a tool because of its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is within our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not believe those that cope with mathematics tend to be more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics than the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for the first time, BC. It had been used by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry into the written literature, with Plato BC. It absolutely was in the 380s. The word meaning is “what must be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, rather than the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It’s difficult to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents which are not centered on archaeological findings that want interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. In accordance with Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. As you know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suitable for agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that gives life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are really valuable. However, at the end of the floods caused by the Nile river each year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Considering that the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each and every flood, the “geometricists” of their state, who’re responsible for these works, should arrive at take the necessary measurements and give the landowners just as much land as they’d in the last year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of the measurements and calculations. A second opinion concerning the birth of mathematics is the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). In accordance with Aristotle, mathematics came to be in Egypt. But it was born from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the necessity for measurement-calculation due to Nile floods. During those times, the only real intellectual class of countries such as for example Egypt was the priest class. Because the livelihood with this class is given by the public or their state, they’ve much time and energy to give to intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that time, just as others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views might be true; priests wished to simplify the task of the geometric, or they found out how exactly to calculate the aspects of some geometric shapes such as triangular and trapezoidal to check that the distribution was fair, and in this way resulted in the birth of geometry.
We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period will be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The next period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover an amount of 1000 years, called the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The 3rd term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, referred to as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we are living in, dating back once again to early 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, could be the fifth period. I will attempt to give details about the development of mathematics in that period, contributing mathematicians, the place of mathematics in social life and the essential top features of mathematics because period.
We shall start the very first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two major causes for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The 2nd reason may be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of the fires happened throughout the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus is the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, normally 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text as opposed to paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are derived from the term papyrus. The average lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main resources of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are these two papyri. The first of these papyrus is a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is just a copy published by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to teach math. In the introduction part, after having a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions receive with their solutions. They are the type of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as for instance sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the region of some geometric shapes. This really is just about our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can be BC. It is really a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, aside from the two. When it comes to other two questions, one of them is the calculation of the quantity and area of the surface of the sphere part cut with a plane. Another is the question of finding the amount of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. These two questions are accepted because the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the region of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found how many pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s are the years when the Persians began to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 could be the date that has been accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of a very bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. A couple, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous that he visited Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. Whilst in Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the length of the present shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming an organization around him to instruct what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof based on reasoning, that will be not centered on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. In addition, Tales is the person who is recognized as the very first philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a while, visited Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken to Babylon by capturing the Persians during the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a college and tried to show individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior people of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected to each other with oath. The next group includes students attending school. Pythagoras school is dependant on number cult. According for them, everything can be reduced to numbers; It has an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for example 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… would be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the proper sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the very first major crisis of mathematics. Many of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by a raid led with a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a couple of years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for quite some time under this or that name. As may be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.