Teaching Maths with Meaning: Maths Displays | Math

Teaching Maths with Meaning: Maths Displays

Teaching Maths with Meaning: Maths Displays

MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is one of many oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined since the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved as time passes; it is no longer possible to describe it in a couple of sentences. What I’ve to say now will be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is a skill like painting and music. A large proportion of mathematicians perform it being an art. Out of this viewpoint, the fact a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another other than mathematics does not concern them much. What matters for them is the depth of the task done, the novelty of the techniques used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is really a language. If the goal of science is the universe; If it’s to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we ought to have the ability to browse the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we have to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also view it as a game. Mathematics is only a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is inside our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is now far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not believe that people who deal with mathematics tend to be more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The word mathematics, for the first time, BC. It had been used by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry in to the written literature, with Plato BC. It had been in the 380s. The term meaning is “what must be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, as opposed to the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equivalent to it in geometry or old languages ​​were used.

It’s not possible to state anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that are not based on archaeological findings that want interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. You may already know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suited to agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are extremely valuable. However, by the end of the floods caused by the Nile river each year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Since the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each and every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, that are in charge of these works, should arrive at take the required measurements and give the landowners the maximum amount of land as they’d in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of those measurements and calculations. An additional opinion concerning the birth of mathematics is the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to Aristotle, mathematics was created in Egypt. However it came to be from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the necessity for measurement-calculation brought on by Nile floods. During those times, the sole intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Considering that the livelihood with this class is supplied by the general public or the state, they have much time to give intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that time, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views may be true; priests wished to simplify the work of the geometric, or they learned just how to calculate the areas of some geometric shapes such as for instance triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and in this way generated the birth of geometry.

We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The very first period will be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The next period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover an amount of 1000 years, referred to as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The 3rd term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, known as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we’re surviving in, dating back to the first 1900s, called age modern mathematics, could be the fifth period. I will endeavour to provide details about the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the spot of mathematics in social life and the essential options that come with mathematics in that period.

We will start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two significant reasons for this. The first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The next reason is the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of the fires happened during the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus could be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, typically 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to create text in place of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages ​​such as “Paper”, “papier” are based on the term papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky because of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Up to now, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to possess been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key resources of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are these two papyri. The initial of these papyrus is just a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus called the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy compiled by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to show math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions get with their solutions. They are the type of questions people can encounter in everyday life, such as for example sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the region of ​​some geometric shapes. This is pretty much our 8th grade mathematics. The second papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can be BC. It is really a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the type of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, with the exception of the two. Are you aware that other two questions, one may be the calculation of the volume and section of ​​the surface of the sphere part cut by a plane. The other is the question of finding the quantity of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. These two questions are accepted because the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the location of ​​the circle was proportional to its diameter and found how many pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained as of this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s are the years once the Persians started initially to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 may be the date which was accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a very bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous he went along to Egypt, stayed there for a while and learned geometry in Egypt. Whilst in Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the truly amazing pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the fantastic pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to along the current shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to instruct what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof centered on reasoning, that is not predicated on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Additionally, Tales is the person who is recognized as the first philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, went along to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken fully to Babylon by capturing the Persians through the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a college and tried to instruct the people he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior people of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected to each other with oath. The second group includes students attending school. Pythagoras school is dependant on number cult. According to them, everything could be reduced to numbers; It has an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for example 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… would be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem called the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the proper sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the initial major crisis of mathematics. Lots of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by way of a raid led by way of a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As may be understood from these records, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.

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