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Mathematics is one of many oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined while the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved over time; it’s no longer possible to explain it in a few sentences. What I have to express now will be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art like painting and music. The vast majority of mathematicians perform it being an art. Out of this perspective, the fact that a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another besides mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters for them could be the depth of the job done, the novelty of the techniques used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is just a language. If the purpose of science may be the universe; When it is to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we must manage to browse the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we must know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics can be an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also view it as a game. Mathematics is only a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is within our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not genuinely believe that those who handle mathematics tend to be more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The term mathematics, for the very first time, BC. It was utilized by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry to the written literature, with Plato BC. It was in the 380s. The phrase meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, as opposed to the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, equivalent to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It’s extremely hard to state anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents which are not based on archaeological findings that want interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. In accordance with Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. As you know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suitable for agriculture; It is the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are really valuable. However, at the conclusion of the floods caused by the Nile river annually, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Because the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who’re responsible for these works, should arrive at take the mandatory measurements and supply the landowners as much land as they had in the last year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of those measurements and calculations. An additional opinion in regards to the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to Aristotle, mathematics came to be in Egypt. However it was born out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the necessity for measurement-calculation due to Nile floods. During those times, the only real intellectual class of countries such as Egypt was the priest class. Since the livelihood of the class is supplied by the general public or their state, they have much time to share with intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of the period, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views may be true; priests desired to simplify the work of the geometric, or they discovered just how to calculate the areas of some geometric shapes such as for instance triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and in this way generated the birth of geometry.
We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The initial period is likely to be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The next period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover a period of 1000 years, called the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The third term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, known as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we are surviving in, dating back to the early 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will endeavour to give information regarding the development of mathematics in that period, contributing mathematicians, the place of mathematics in social life and the essential top features of mathematics for the reason that period.
We will start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You can find two significant reasons for this. The foremost is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The 2nd reason is the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the last of the fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus is the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, an average of 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to create text in place of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the word papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main resources of our familiarity with Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The initial of those papyrus is really a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus referred to as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to show math. In the introduction part, after having a few exercises given to teach operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions get with their solutions. These are the kind of questions people can encounter in lifestyle, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the area of some geometric shapes. That is pretty much our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, known as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can be BC. It is a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the type of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, except for the two. When it comes to other two questions, one is the calculation of the volume and section of the surface of the sphere part cut by way of a plane. One other is the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. These two questions are accepted as the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the location of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the amount of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained as of this level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s will be the years once the Persians began to dominate the center east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, annually later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 may be the date that was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a really bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started earlier than this period. A couple, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous he went to Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. During Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the fantastic pyramid by measuring along the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the size of the existing shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming an organization around him to instruct what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof centered on reasoning, which is not based on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Furthermore, Tales is the person who is considered the first philosopher in human history. He was born on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, went along to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians through the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a college and tried to teach individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior people of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected to one another with oath. The second group consists of students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According to them, everything could be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for example 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… will be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem called the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the proper sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a strong crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the initial major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by way of a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for quite some time under this or that name. As could be understood from this information, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.