Mathematics is one of many oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined whilst the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved as time passes; it’s no more possible to describe it in a few sentences. What I’ve to say now will undoubtedly be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art like painting and music. A large proportion of mathematicians perform it as an art. Using this point of view, the fact that a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another other than mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters to them is the depth of the task done, the novelty of the techniques used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is really a language. If the goal of science could be the universe; When it is to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we ought to be able to see the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we must know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also notice it as a game. Mathematics is only a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is inside our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics has become far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t think that those that cope with mathematics are more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics than the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The word mathematics, for the first time, BC. It had been employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry to the written literature, with Plato BC. It absolutely was in the 380s. The phrase meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, instead of the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, comparable to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It’s difficult to express anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that are not centered on archaeological findings that require interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We can say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. As you know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suitable for agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that provides life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are really valuable. However, by the end of the floods due to the Nile river each year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Because the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who are accountable for these works, should arrive at take the mandatory measurements and provide the landowners as much land as they’d in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of those measurements and calculations. Another opinion about the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. However it was created out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the requirement for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. At that time, the only intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Because the livelihood of this class is given by people or the state, they’ve much time for you to give to intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views may be true; priests wanted to simplify the job of the geometric, or they found out how exactly to calculate the aspects of some geometric shapes such as for example triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and in this way led to the birth of geometry.
We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The very first period will soon be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover an amount of 1000 years, called the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The next term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, called the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we are surviving in, dating back again to the first 1900s, called age modern mathematics, could be the fifth period. I will attempt to provide information about the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the place of mathematics in social life and the basic features of mathematics in that period.
We shall start the very first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two major causes for this. The first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The 2nd reason may be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of those fires happened during the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus is the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, an average of 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text in place of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are derived from the word papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. Up to now, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to possess been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key resources of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The initial of these papyrus is a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus called the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy published by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to show math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions get making use of their solutions. These are the type of questions people can encounter in everyday life, such as for example sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the location of some geometric shapes. That is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The next papyrus, known as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can also be BC. It is a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, with the exception of the two. Are you aware that other two questions, one may be the calculation of the amount and part of the surface of the sphere part cut by way of a plane. The other is the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut by way of a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted as the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the region of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found how many pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained only at that level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s would be the years when the Persians started to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, per year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 may be the date that has been accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of a really bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started sooner than this period. A couple, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as being the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous that he visited Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the fantastic pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the length of the existing shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming an organization around him to instruct what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof based on reasoning, that is not centered on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Furthermore, Tales is the one who is recognized as the very first philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a time, visited Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians throughout the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a school and tried to teach the folks he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior folks of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected to one another with oath. The 2nd group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is based on number cult. According for them, everything could be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for example 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… would be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the best sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the first major crisis of mathematics. Many of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As could be understood from these records, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the cornerstone of Greek mathematics.