Year 6 SATs Maths Revision – KS2 | Maths Boot Camp | Math

Year 6 SATs Maths Revision – KS2 | Maths Boot Camp

Year 6 SATs Maths Revision – KS2 | Maths Boot Camp

MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined whilst the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved with time; it is no longer possible to explain it in a couple of sentences. What I’ve to state now will be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is a skill like painting and music. A large proportion of mathematicians perform it as an art. Using this perspective, the fact a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another other than mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters to them may be the depth of the task done, the novelty of the strategy used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is a language. If the objective of science is the universe; If it’s to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we must be able to see the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we must know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also view it as a game. Mathematics is only a tool because of its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is inside our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not think that those who handle mathematics tend to be more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The word mathematics, for the first time, BC. It absolutely was used by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry into the written literature, with Plato BC. It had been in the 380s. The term meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, as opposed to the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equivalent to it in geometry or old languages ​​were used.

It is not possible to state anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents that aren’t centered on archaeological findings that require interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. In accordance with Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. As you know, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not suitable for agriculture; It is the 3% portion that gives life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are extremely valuable. However, by the end of the floods caused by the Nile river every year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Since the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who are accountable for these works, should arrive at take the mandatory measurements and give the landowners the maximum amount of land as they’d in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of these measurements and calculations. Another opinion in regards to the birth of mathematics is usually the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). In accordance with Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. But it came to be from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the need for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. At that time, the only intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Since the livelihood with this class is given by the public or the state, they have much time and energy to give intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that time, just as others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.These two views might be true; priests desired to simplify the work of the geometric, or they found out how exactly to calculate the areas of some geometric shapes such as for example triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and in this manner led to the birth of geometry.

We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The very first period is likely to be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The next period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover an amount of 1000 years, called the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The next term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, referred to as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we’re living in, dating back to early 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, could be the fifth period. I will try to offer information about the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the place of mathematics in social life and the fundamental features of mathematics because period.

We will start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two significant reasons for this. The foremost is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The next reason could be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the last of those fires happened during the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus is the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, typically 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text as opposed to paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages ​​such as “Paper”, “papier” are based on the word papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. Up to now, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to own been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key sources of our familiarity with Egyptian mathematics are both of these papyri. The first of those papyrus is a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus referred to as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy published by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to teach math. In the introduction part, after a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are given using their solutions. They’re the sort of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the location of ​​some geometric shapes. That is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can be BC. It is a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, aside from the two. As for the other two questions, one is the calculation of the quantity and section of ​​the surface of the sphere part cut by way of a plane. The other could be the question of finding the amount of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Both of these questions are accepted since the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the area of ​​the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the number of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained as of this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s would be the years once the Persians started to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, per year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 is the date which was accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of a really bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started sooner than this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous he visited Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. Whilst in Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the truly amazing pyramid by measuring the size of the shadow of the fantastic pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the length of the current shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to show what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, which can be not centered on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. In addition, Tales is the person who is considered the initial philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a while, went to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians through the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a college and tried to show the folks he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior individuals of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected to each other with oath. The 2nd group consists of students attending school. Pythagoras school is dependant on number cult. According to them, everything could be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… are the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem called the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the proper sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a strong crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the initial major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by a raid led by way of a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for quite some time under this or that name. As can be understood from these records, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the cornerstone of Greek mathematics.

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