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MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is one of the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined since the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved with time; it is no longer possible to explain it in a couple of sentences. What I have to say now will be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art like painting and music. The vast majority of mathematicians perform it being an art. Using this viewpoint, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another other than mathematics does not concern them much. What matters in their mind is the depth of the work done, the novelty of the methods used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is a language. If the objective of science may be the universe; If it is to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we should manage to browse the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we need to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also notice it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool for its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is in your knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics has become far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t think that those who deal with mathematics tend to be more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The word mathematics, for the very first time, BC. It absolutely was utilized by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry in to the written literature, with Plato BC. It was in the 380s. The term meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, instead of the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages ​​were used.

It’s not possible to state anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that are not centered on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. As you know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suited to agriculture; It is the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are really valuable. However, at the conclusion of the floods caused by the Nile river annually, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Considering that the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each and every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, that are responsible for these works, should arrive at take the required measurements and provide the landowners as much land as they’d in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of those measurements and calculations. An additional opinion concerning the birth of mathematics is the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). Based on Aristotle, mathematics was created in Egypt. Nonetheless it was born out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the necessity for measurement-calculation brought on by Nile floods. During those times, the sole intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Considering that the livelihood of this class is given by the public or their state, they have much time and energy to share with intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, just as others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both these views might be true; priests wished to simplify the task of the geometric, or they learned how exactly to calculate the areas of some geometric shapes such as for instance triangular and trapezoidal to check on that the distribution was fair, and in this way generated the birth of geometry.

We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period will undoubtedly be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The next period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover an amount of 1000 years, known as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The next term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, referred to as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we are surviving in, dating back to the early 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will endeavour to give information regarding the development of mathematics for the reason that period, contributing mathematicians, the area of mathematics in social life and the basic options that come with mathematics because period.

We will start the very first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two significant reasons for this. The first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The next reason is the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the last of the fires happened throughout the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus could be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, an average of 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to create text as opposed to paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages ​​such as “Paper”, “papier” are derived from the phrase papyrus. The average lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky because of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to own been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main sourced elements of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The initial of these papyrus is just a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to show math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are given using their solutions. These are the type of questions people can encounter in lifestyle, such as for example sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the area of ​​some geometric shapes. This really is pretty much our 8th grade mathematics. The next papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can be BC. It is a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the sort of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, with the exception of the two. Are you aware that other two questions, one of them could be the calculation of the amount and area of ​​the surface of the sphere part cut by way of a plane. One other could be the question of finding the quantity of a pyramid cut by way of a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted while the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the region of ​​the circle was proportional to its diameter and found how many pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s are the years when the Persians started initially to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the sole rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, annually later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 may be the date that has been accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the start of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started sooner than this period. A couple, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known he went to Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. During Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the truly amazing pyramid by measuring the size of the shadow of the great pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the length of the present shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming friends around him to instruct what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, that will be not predicated on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Additionally, Tales is the one who is known as the very first philosopher in human history. He was created on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a time, went to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken to Babylon by capturing the Persians through the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a school and tried to teach the folks he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior individuals of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected together with oath. The second group includes students attending school. Pythagoras school is dependant on number cult. According to them, everything can be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is just a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for instance 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… will be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the right sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a strong crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the initial major crisis of mathematics. Lots of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by way of a raid led with a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a couple of years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for several years under this or that name. As may be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.

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